How To Treat Paracetamol Overdose At Home

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How To Treat Paracetamol Overdose At Home

How do you recover from a paracetamol overdose?

Article date: September 2012 Paracetamol overdose can result in liver damage which may be fatal. Intravenous acetylcysteine is the antidote to treat paracetamol overdose and is virtually 100% effective in preventing liver damage when given within 8 hours of the overdose.

How do you neutralize a paracetamol overdose at home?

Paracetamol is widely used for its analgesic/anti-pyretic effects. It is also common to see accidental paediatric ingestion, unintentional self-administered supratherapeutic ingestions or intentional self-poisoning in the Emergency Department. While paracetamol is safe in normal doses, it is hepatotoxic and potentially fatal in overdose.

Fortunately, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a safe and effective antidote which if used correctly prevents serious hepatic injury after paracetamol overdose. Updated guidelines for the management of paracetamol poisoning in Australia and New Zealand were released in December 2019. A Guideline Summary has also been published.

The ECI have produced this page to give quick access to the important flow charts and tables used in the management of paracetamol overdose, including when and how to use NAC based on these updated guidelines. For advice at any time about management of paracetamol ingestion contact Poisons Information Centre on 13 11 26.

Patients who present early should be given activated charcoalPatients at risk of hepatotoxicity should receive intravenous (IV) acetylcysteineThe paracetamol nomogram should be used to assess the need for treatment in immediate release paracetamol ingestions with a known time of ingestionCases that require different management include modified release paracetamol overdoses, large or massive overdoses, accidental liquid paracetamol ingestion in children and repeated supratherapeutic ingestionsAll patients with intentional self-poisoning with paracetamol should have a serum paracetamol performed, regardless of reported ingested doseIt is important to check the units of measurement when using paracetamol nomograms with many laboratories recently changing from μmol/L (right axis) to mg/L (left axis)

How long does paracetamol overdose kick in?

What are the symptoms of paracetamol overdose? – There may be no symptoms for the first day. A feeling of sickness (nausea) and being sick (vomiting) may occur a few hours after taking the overdose. After 24 hours there may be pain under the ribs on the right side (where the liver is) and there may be yellowing of the whites of the eyes and the skin (jaundice). Other features include:

The brain can also be affected with confusion and disorientation (called encephalopathy).The kidneys can also be affected with a reduction in urine, and kidney failure can occur.Low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia) may occur.There may be a build-up of acid in the blood, which can cause the patient to breathe faster.There may also be features of depression but not always.

Sometimes it is carers who will discover that someone has taken an overdose. They may find empty packets or a suicide note. It is important to bring the empty packets and notes with you to the hospital.

Can paracetamol overdose go away?

How much paracetamol is an overdose? – Paracetamol is mainly cleared from the body by the liver. The liver can only cope with so much paracetamol at one time. A substance called glutathione is needed to neutralise the toxic break down components of paracetamol.

  • Weight, The safe doses of paracetamol for children vary according to their body weight and a very light adult may be easily pushed into toxic levels.
  • Liver disease, Pre-existing liver conditions may reduce the ability of the liver to clear paracetamol.
  • Alcohol abuse, Long term alcohol misuse can reduce liver function.
  • Medications, Some medications increase the risk of liver damage from paracetamol including carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, ketoconazole and rifampicin,

In these situations, the safe daily amount of paracetamol will be reduced, you may even be advised to avoid it altogether – check with your doctor. Any amount of paracetamol over the recommended dose could be classed as an overdose. Staggered overdoses, where people take more than the recommended dose over a period of hours or days can cause harm in the same way that sudden, large overdoses can.

How much paracetamol is a serious overdose?

Nomogram – The paracetamol ingestion graph or ‘nomogram’ is used to determine if treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is needed, The paracetamol nomogram is used to plot paracetamol concentration against time from ingestion. If the paracetamol concentration lies on or above the treatment line, NAC should be administered. Patients who have a delayed presentation, or where the paracetamol level will not be available within 8 hours from last ingestion, NAC is started whilst awaiting investigations. Paracetamol levels can be interpreted up to 24 hours, but any detectable level of paracetamol beyond 16 hours is concerning.

How to cleanse your liver from paracetamol?

Review question: in this review, we looked at the evidence for the interventions (treatments) used to treat people with paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning. Mainly, we tried to assess what effects the interventions had on the number of deaths and the need for a liver transplant.

Background: paracetamol is one of the most common drugs taken in overdose. Intentional or accidental poisoning with paracetamol is a common cause of liver injury. Search date: the evidence is current to January 2017. Study characteristics: randomised clinical trials (studies where people are randomly put into one of two or more treatment groups) where participants had come to medical attention because they had taken a paracetamol overdose, intentionally or by accident, regardless of the amount of paracetamol taken or the age, sex, or other medical conditions of the person involved.

There are many different interventions that can be used to try to treat people with paracetamol poisoning. These interventions include decreasing the absorption of the paracetamol ingested and hence decreasing the amount absorbed into the bloodstream.

  • The agents include activated charcoal (that binds paracetamol together in the stomach), gastric lavage (stomach washout to remove as much paracetamol as possible), or ipecacuanha (a syrup that is swallowed and causes vomiting (being sick)).
  • Paracetamol once absorbed into the bloodstream goes to the liver where the majority is broken down to harmless products.

However, a small amount of the medicine is converted into a toxic product that the liver can normally handle but, when large amounts of paracetamol are taken, the liver is overwhelmed. As a consequence, the toxic product can damage the liver leading to liver failure, kidney failure, and in some cases death.

Other interventions to treat paracetamol poisoning include medicines (antidotes) that may decrease the amount of the toxic products (such as a medicine called cimetidine) or breakdown the toxic products (including medicines called methionine, cysteamine, dimercaprol, or acetylcysteine). Finally, attempts can be made to remove paracetamol and its toxic products from the bloodstream using special blood cleansing equipment.

All these treatments were examined. We found 11 randomised clinical trials with 700 participants. Most of these trials looked at different treatments. Key results: activated charcoal, gastric lavage, and ipecacuanha may reduce absorption of paracetamol if started within one to two hours of paracetamol ingestion, but the clinical benefit was unclear.

  1. Activated charcoal seems to be the best choice if the person is able to take it.
  2. People may not be able to take charcoal if they are drowsy and some may dislike its taste or texture (or both).
  3. Of the treatments that remove the toxic products of paracetamol, acetylcysteine seems to reduce the rate of liver injury from paracetamol poisoning.
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Furthermore, it has fewer side effects than some other antidotes such as dimercaprol and cysteamine; its superiority to methionine was unclear. Acetylcysteine should be given to people with paracetamol poisoning at risk of liver damage, risk is determined by the dose ingested, time of ingestion, and investigations.

More recent clinical trials have looked at ways to decrease side effects of intravenous (into a vein) acetylcysteine treatment, by altering the way it is given. These trials have shown that by using a slower infusion and lower initial dose of acetylcysteine, the proportion of side effects such as nausea (feeling sick) and vomiting, and allergy (the body’s bad reaction to the medicine such as a rash) may be lowered.

Quality of the evidence: this review of interventions for paracetamol poisoning found surprisingly few published randomised clinical trials for this very common condition. Furthermore, the majority of trials had few participants and all were at high risk of bias.

Accordingly, the quality of the evidence should be considered as low or very low. If you found this evidence helpful, please consider donating to Cochrane. We are a charity that produces accessible evidence to help people make health and care decisions. Authors’ conclusions: These results highlight the paucity of randomised clinical trials comparing different interventions for paracetamol overdose and their routes of administration and the low or very low level quality of the evidence that is available.

Evidence from a single trial found activated charcoal seemed the best choice to reduce absorption of paracetamol. Acetylcysteine should be given to people at risk of toxicity including people presenting with liver failure. Further randomised clinical trials with low risk of bias and adequate number of participants are required to determine which regimen results in the fewest adverse effects with the best efficacy.

  1. Current management of paracetamol poisoning worldwide involves the administration of intravenous or oral acetylcysteine which is based mainly on observational studies.
  2. Results from these observational studies indicate that treatment with acetylcysteine seems to result in a decrease in morbidity and mortality, However, further evidence from randomised clinical trials comparing different treatments are needed.

Read the full abstract. Background: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most widely used non-prescription analgesic in the world. Paracetamol is commonly taken in overdose either deliberately or unintentionally. In high-income countries, paracetamol toxicity is a common cause of acute liver injury.

There are various interventions to treat paracetamol poisoning, depending on the clinical status of the person. These interventions include inhibiting the absorption of paracetamol from the gastrointestinal tract (decontamination), removal of paracetamol from the vascular system, and antidotes to prevent the formation of, or to detoxify, metabolites.

Objectives: To assess the benefits and harms of interventions for paracetamol overdosage irrespective of the cause of the overdose. Search strategy: We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register (January 2017), CENTRAL (2016, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1946 to January 2017), Embase (1974 to January 2017), and Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to January 2017).

We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov database (US National Institute of Health) for any ongoing or completed trials (January 2017). We examined the reference lists of relevant papers identified by the search and other published reviews.

Selection criteria: Randomised clinical trials assessing benefits and harms of interventions in people who have ingested a paracetamol overdose. The interventions could have been gastric lavage, ipecacuanha, or activated charcoal, or various extracorporeal treatments, or antidotes.

The interventions could have been compared with placebo, no intervention, or to each other in differing regimens. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently extracted data from the included trials. We used fixed-effect and random-effects Peto odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for analysis of the review outcomes.

We used the Cochrane ‘Risk of bias’ tool to assess the risks of bias (i.e. systematic errors leading to overestimation of benefits and underestimation of harms). We used Trial Sequential Analysis to control risks of random errors (i.e. play of chance) and GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence and constructed ‘Summary of findings’ tables using GRADE software.

Main results: We identified 11 randomised clinical trials (of which one acetylcysteine trial was abandoned due to low numbers recruited), assessing several different interventions in 700 participants. The variety of interventions studied included decontamination, extracorporeal measures, and antidotes to detoxify paracetamol’s toxic metabolite; which included methionine, cysteamine, dimercaprol, or acetylcysteine.

There were no randomised clinical trials of agents that inhibit cytochrome P-450 to decrease the activation of the toxic metabolite N -acetyl- p -benzoquinone imine. Of the 11 trials, only two had two common outcomes, and hence, we could only meta-analyse two comparisons.

  1. Each of the remaining comparisons included outcome data from one trial only and hence their results are presented as described in the trials.
  2. All trial analyses lack power to access efficacy.
  3. Furthermore, all the trials were at high risk of bias.
  4. Accordingly, the quality of evidence was low or very low for all comparisons.

Interventions that prevent absorption, such as gastric lavage, ipecacuanha, or activated charcoal were compared with placebo or no intervention and with each other in one four-armed randomised clinical trial involving 60 participants with an uncertain randomisation procedure and hence very low quality.

  1. The trial presented results on lowering plasma paracetamol levels.
  2. Activated charcoal seemed to reduce the absorption of paracetamol, but the clinical benefits were unclear.
  3. Activated charcoal seemed to have the best risk:benefit ratio among gastric lavage, ipecacuanha, or supportive treatment if given within four hours of ingestion.

There seemed to be no difference between gastric lavage and ipecacuanha, but gastric lavage and ipecacuanha seemed more effective than no treatment (very low quality of evidence). Extracorporeal interventions included charcoal haemoperfusion compared with conventional treatment (supportive care including gastric lavage, intravenous fluids, and fresh frozen plasma) in one trial with 16 participants.

The mean cumulative amount of paracetamol removed was 1.4 g. One participant from the haemoperfusion group who had ingested 135 g of paracetamol, died. There were no deaths in the conventional treatment group. Accordingly, we found no benefit of charcoal haemoperfusion (very low quality of evidence). Acetylcysteine appeared superior to placebo and had fewer adverse effects when compared with dimercaprol or cysteamine.

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Acetylcysteine superiority to methionine was unproven. One small trial (low quality evidence) found that acetylcysteine may reduce mortality in people with fulminant hepatic failure (Peto OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.94). The most recent randomised clinical trials studied different acetylcysteine regimens, with the primary outcome being adverse events.

It was unclear which acetylcysteine treatment protocol offered the best efficacy, as most trials were underpowered to look at this outcome. One trial showed that a modified 12-hour acetylcysteine regimen with a two-hour acetylcysteine 100 mg/kg bodyweight loading dose was associated with significantly fewer adverse reactions compared with the traditional three-bag 20.25-hour regimen (low quality of evidence).

All Trial Sequential Analyses showed lack of sufficient power. Children were not included in the majority of trials. Hence, the evidence pertains only to adults.

What happens if you take 12 paracetamol?

If you take too much – Taking 1 or 2 extra tablets is unlikely to harm you. Do not take more than 8 tablets in 24 hours. Taking too much paracetamol can be dangerous and you may need treatment. Too much paracetamol can cause liver damage.

What happens if you take 4 500mg paracetamol at once?

If you take too much Paracetamol your liver may not be able to metabolise it efficiently and this could make you extremely unwell. Paracetamol overdose can lead to liver failure in some people and this is why you need to take careful note of this advice.

Should I go to hospital if I overdose on paracetamol?

Go to the nearest emergency department (A&E) if: you have stomach pain. you feel sick (nausea) or are being sick (vomiting) your skin or eyes look yellow (jaundice) you have a very bad headache.

What are the stages after a paracetamol overdose?

Acetaminophen, a common ingredient in many prescription and non-prescription drugs, is safe in normal doses, but severe overdose can cause liver failure and death.

People sometimes ingest too many products that contain acetaminophen and poison themselves. Depending on the amount of acetaminophen in the blood, symptoms range from none at all to vomiting and abdominal pain to liver failure and death. The diagnosis is based on the amount of acetaminophen in the blood and results of liver function tests. Acetylcysteine is given to reduce the toxicity of the acetaminophen,

More than 100 products contain acetaminophen, a common over-the-counter pain reliever that is also present in many combination prescription drugs. If several similar products are consumed at a time, a person may inadvertently take too much acetaminophen,

Many preparations intended for use in children are available in liquid, tablet, and capsule form, and a parent may try several preparations simultaneously or within several hours to treat a fever or pain, not realizing they all contain acetaminophen, Acetaminophen usually is a very safe drug, but it is not harmless.

To cause poisoning, several times the recommended dose of acetaminophen must be taken. For example, the recommended dose for a person who weighs 155 pounds (70 kg) is two to three 325-milligram tablets every 6 hours. A toxic dose for this person is at least about thirty tablets taken all at once.

In stage 1 (after several hours), the person may vomit but does not seem ill. Many people have no symptoms in stage 1. In stage 2 (after 24 to 72 hours), nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain may develop. At this stage, blood tests show that the liver is functioning abnormally. In stage 4 (after 5 days), the person either recovers or experiences failure of the liver and often other organs, which may be fatal.

If toxicity results from multiple smaller doses taken over time, the first indication of the problem may be abnormal liver function, sometimes with jaundice and/or bleeding.

Acetaminophen levels in the blood Abnormal liver function tests

Doctors can predict the likelihood of acetaminophen toxicity by the amount ingested or, more accurately, by the level of acetaminophen in the person’s blood. The blood level, measured between 4 hours and 24 hours after ingestion, may help predict the severity of the liver damage.

Charcoal and/or acetylcysteine Sometimes, treatment for liver failure or liver transplant

If acetaminophen was taken within the previous several hours, activated charcoal may be given. If toxicity results from multiple smaller doses taken over time, predicting the course of liver injury is difficult. Acetylcysteine is given if tests indicate liver damage is possible and sometimes if liver damage has already developed. Copyright © 2023 Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA and its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Is 1000mg of paracetamol an overdose?

Adult dosing of paracetamol – The recommended paracetamol dosing for adults and children 12 years and over is 500 to 1000mg every four to six hours as necessary, with a maximum of 4000mg in any 24 hour period.

How many pills is too much?

Am I taking too many medications? — Do I still need this medication? Is deprescribing for you? Medications can improve the lives of people who suffer from chronic conditions, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, cancer, mental illness and chronic pain.

3 out of 5 Canadians (62% ) over the age of 65 take at least 5 different prescription medications. 1 out of 4 Canadians (24%) over the age of 65 take at least 10 different prescription medications ().

: Am I taking too many medications? — Do I still need this medication? Is deprescribing for you?

Can the liver repair itself after paracetamol overdose?

The liver is one of the only organs in the body that is able to replace damaged tissue with new cells rather than scar tissue. For example, an overdose of acetaminophen (Tylenol) can destroy half of a person’s liver cells in less than a week. Barring complications, the liver can repair itself completely and, within a month, the patient will show no signs of damage.

What are the signs of liver failure paracetamol?

Paracetamol poisoning
Other names Acetaminophen toxicity, paracetamol toxicity, acetaminophen poisoning, paracetamol overdose, acetaminophen overdose, Tylenol toxicity
Paracetamol
Specialty Toxicology
Symptoms Early : Non specific, feeling tired, abdominal pain, nausea Later : Yellowish skin, blood clotting problems, confusion
Complications Liver failure, kidney failure, pancreatitis, low blood sugar, lactic acidosis,
Usual onset After 24 hours (toxicity)
Causes Paracetamol (acetaminophen) usually > 7 g
Risk factors Alcoholism, malnutrition, certain other hepatotoxic medications
Diagnostic method Blood levels at specific times following use
Differential diagnosis Alcoholism, viral hepatitis, gastroenteritis
Treatment Activated charcoal, acetylcysteine, liver transplant
Prognosis Death occurs in ~0.1%
Frequency >100,000 per year (US)

Paracetamol poisoning, also known as acetaminophen poisoning, is caused by excessive use of the medication paracetamol (acetaminophen). Most people have few or non-specific symptoms in the first 24 hours following overdose. These symptoms include feeling tired, abdominal pain, or nausea,

This is typically followed by absence of symptoms for a couple of days, after which yellowish skin, blood clotting problems, and confusion occurs as a result of liver failure, Additional complications may include kidney failure, pancreatitis, low blood sugar, and lactic acidosis, If death does not occur, people tend to recover fully over a couple of weeks.

Without treatment, death from toxicity occurs 4 to 18 days later. Paracetamol poisoning can occur accidentally or as an attempt to die by suicide, Risk factors for toxicity include alcoholism, malnutrition, and the taking of certain other hepatotoxic medications,

  1. Liver damage results not from paracetamol itself, but from one of its metabolites, N -acetyl- p -benzoquinone imine (NAPQI).
  2. NAPQI decreases the liver’s glutathione and directly damages cells in the liver.
  3. Diagnosis is based on the blood level of paracetamol at specific times after the medication was taken.
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These values are often plotted on the Rumack-Matthew nomogram to determine level of concern. Treatment may include activated charcoal if the person seeks medical help soon after the overdose. Attempting to force the person to vomit is not recommended. If there is a potential for toxicity, the antidote acetylcysteine is recommended.

The medication is generally given for at least 24 hours. Psychiatric care may be required following recovery. A liver transplant may be required if damage to the liver becomes severe. The need for transplant is often based on low blood pH, high blood lactate, poor blood clotting, or significant hepatic encephalopathy,

With early treatment liver failure is rare. Death occurs in about 0.1% of cases. Paracetamol poisoning was first described in the 1960s. Rates of poisoning vary significantly between regions of the world. In the United States more than 100,000 cases occur a year.

How many paracetamol can you take before liver failure?

HEPATOTOXICITY RISK FACTORS – The dose of ingestion as well as the time span between ingestion of paracetamol and of the treatment drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC) are the most influential factors in the manifestation and severity of paracetamol hepatotoxicity.

While acute liver injury can occur when used at or below the recommended daily maximum dose (4000 mg), paracetamol toxicity is often the result of ingestion of paracetamol over this maximum dose. In fact, the maximum daily dosage has been a topic of controversy, with some manufacturers voluntarily lowering this recommended threshold on their products in order to increase the safety of patients.

Beyond exceeding the recommended daily dose, the risk for liver injury increases when paracetamol is used in combination with other drugs and substances, such as alcohol. The interplay between paracetamol and alcohol is an interesting one, because these compounds are competitive substrates for CYP2E1, which reduces the production of the reactive NAPQI species generated in paracetamol metabolism; as a result, acute alcohol ingestion may in fact act as a protective mechanism against paracetamol hepatotoxicity.

On the other hand, paracetamol hepatotoxicity is augmented with chronic alcohol consumption through the up-regulation and increased synthesis and activity of CYP2E1 as well as the decreased production of glutathione; these activities result in enhanced liver necrosis and an exacerbated prognosis. While the risk of liver failure may be increased in the case of chronic alcoholism in combination with paracetamol overdose, alcoholism does not necessarily increase the risk of paracetamol hepatotoxicity when in combination with therapeutic doses.

Beyond alcohol, there are various prescribed and over-the-counter medications that can predispose a patient to paracetamol hepatotoxicity, including opioids, anti-tuberculosis drugs, and anti-epileptic drugs as well as herbs and dietary supplements, such as St.

What are the stages after a paracetamol overdose?

Acetaminophen, a common ingredient in many prescription and non-prescription drugs, is safe in normal doses, but severe overdose can cause liver failure and death.

People sometimes ingest too many products that contain acetaminophen and poison themselves. Depending on the amount of acetaminophen in the blood, symptoms range from none at all to vomiting and abdominal pain to liver failure and death. The diagnosis is based on the amount of acetaminophen in the blood and results of liver function tests. Acetylcysteine is given to reduce the toxicity of the acetaminophen,

More than 100 products contain acetaminophen, a common over-the-counter pain reliever that is also present in many combination prescription drugs. If several similar products are consumed at a time, a person may inadvertently take too much acetaminophen,

  1. Many preparations intended for use in children are available in liquid, tablet, and capsule form, and a parent may try several preparations simultaneously or within several hours to treat a fever or pain, not realizing they all contain acetaminophen,
  2. Acetaminophen usually is a very safe drug, but it is not harmless.

To cause poisoning, several times the recommended dose of acetaminophen must be taken. For example, the recommended dose for a person who weighs 155 pounds (70 kg) is two to three 325-milligram tablets every 6 hours. A toxic dose for this person is at least about thirty tablets taken all at once.

In stage 1 (after several hours), the person may vomit but does not seem ill. Many people have no symptoms in stage 1. In stage 2 (after 24 to 72 hours), nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain may develop. At this stage, blood tests show that the liver is functioning abnormally. In stage 4 (after 5 days), the person either recovers or experiences failure of the liver and often other organs, which may be fatal.

If toxicity results from multiple smaller doses taken over time, the first indication of the problem may be abnormal liver function, sometimes with jaundice and/or bleeding.

Acetaminophen levels in the blood Abnormal liver function tests

Doctors can predict the likelihood of acetaminophen toxicity by the amount ingested or, more accurately, by the level of acetaminophen in the person’s blood. The blood level, measured between 4 hours and 24 hours after ingestion, may help predict the severity of the liver damage.

Charcoal and/or acetylcysteine Sometimes, treatment for liver failure or liver transplant

If acetaminophen was taken within the previous several hours, activated charcoal may be given. If toxicity results from multiple smaller doses taken over time, predicting the course of liver injury is difficult. Acetylcysteine is given if tests indicate liver damage is possible and sometimes if liver damage has already developed. Copyright © 2023 Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA and its affiliates. All rights reserved.

What organ does paracetamol overdose damage?

CONCLUSION – Paracetamol toxicity, albeit accidental or intentional overdose, is an ongoing global problem that continues to result in cases of hepatotoxicity, acute liver failure, and even irreversible liver injury necessitating liver transplantation.

Given the increased prevalence of combination medications in the form of pain relievers and antihistamines, paracetamol remains a significant cause of acute hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by paracetamol contributing to over half of acute liver failure cases in the United States. This is especially concerning given that when co-ingested with other medications, the rise in serum paracetamol levels may be delayed past the 4-hour post-ingestion mark that is currently used to determine patients that require medical therapy.

Current research is exploring the outcomes of paracetamol-related DILI cases and its relationship with liver transplantation as well as other treatment modalities.

What does paracetamol overdose do to the brain?

Paracetamol treatment induced several histopathological alterations in both neurons and neuroglia cells of brain tissue. Several neurons showed signs of degeneration, including cytolysis and chromatolysis (Fig.