How To Treat Red Spot Disease In Fish


How To Treat Red Spot Disease In Fish
Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (red spot disease) Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), also known as red spot disease (RSD) and mycotic granulomatoses (MG), is a seasonal epizootic condition of great importance in wild and farmed freshwater and estuarine fish.

  • It was first reported in farmed ayu ( Plecoglossus altivelis ) in Japan in 1971.
  • It was later reported in estuarine fish, particularly grey mullet in eastern Australia in 1972.
  • The fungus involved in EUS is also known variously as Aphanomyces invadans, A.
  • Piscicida, A.
  • Invaderis and ERA (EUS-related Aphanomyces),

Rhabdoviruses have also been associated with particular outbreaks and secondary Gram-negative bacteria invariably infect EUS lesions.

The outbreak has extended its range through Papua New Guinea into South-East and South Asia and recently into West Asia, where it has now reached Pakistan.Outbreaks of ulcerative disease in menhaden ( Brevoortia tyrannus ) in the United States of America have been shown to be very similar to EUS in Asia.Region-wide, over 50 species of fish have been confirmed by histological diagnosis to be affected by EUS, but some important culture species, including tilapia, milk fish and Chinese carp, have been shown to be resistant.

EUS occurs mostly during periods of low temperatures and after periods of heavy rainfall. These conditions favour sporulation of Aphanomyces invadans and low temperatures have been shown to delay the inflammatory response of fish to fungal infection.EUS is transmitted from one fish to another through the water supply. The susceptible life stages of the fish are usually juvenile and young adults. There is no report of EUS being found in fish fry or fish larvae. When EUS spreads into a fish culture pond, high morbidity (>50 percent) and high mortality (>50 percent) might be observed in those years that have a long cold season, with water temperatures between 18˚ and 22˚C. Some infected fish may recover when the cold period is over. EUS can be readily detected in diseased fish specimens collected from EUS-infected areas using histological techniques. Fish may exhibit red spots or small ulcers. There is no information to indicate that fish can be lifelong carriers of A. invadans. Generally, most infected fish die during an outbreak. Although some mild or moderate EUS-infected fish could recover, they are unlikely to be lifelong carriers. Control of EUS in natural waters is probably impossible. In outbreaks occurring in small, closed water-bodies, liming water and improving water quality, together with removal of infected fish, is often effective in reducing mortalities. Source: OIE : Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (red spot disease)

What causes red spots on fish?

Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), or ‘red spot disease’, is a disease that can affect many species of fish. Red spot disease is known to be endemic in a number of waterways in NSW. EUS is caused by a fungus ( Aphanomyces invadans ) and presents as red lesions (sores) or deep ulcers.

  1. Secondary bacterial infections are often also associated with red spot disease.
  2. Many fish species are known to be susceptible to the disease including bony bream, silver scat, sole, bream, mullet, whiting, dusky flathead, silver trevally, eels and catfish.
  3. EUS is widespread in NSW coastal catchments and has been previously reported in many freshwater catchments and estuaries throughout Australia, including NSW, Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory.

In 2008, reports of ulcerated fish and confirmation of this disease occurred in a number of estuaries including the Manning River, the Wisemans Ferry area of Hawkesbury River, and in Myall Lakes. EUS has also previously been reported from a number of mid-north coast and northern NSW estuaries including Clarence, Hastings, Hunter, Macleay, Port Stephens, Richmond, Tweed and Wallamba Rivers.

In addition to these coastal reports of red spot disease, fish sampled from inland waterways between Bourke and Brewarrina in the Darling River and Salt Creek on the Murray River, were also diagnosed with EUS between 2008 and 2011. In 2022, the presence of EUS in samples submitted from the Myall River at Tea Gardens, Hastings River, and waterways near Grafton was confirmed following investigation of reports of ulcerated fish made to DPI.

Outbreaks of EUS have been associated with acid water run-off particularly after heavy rain and following a prolonged a dry spell, low salinity which may occur after ongoing rainfall and flooding, as well as other factors such as prolonged cold temperatures, crowding, and conditions associated with drought.

What is red disease in fish medicine?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), also known as mycotic granulomatosis (MG) or red spot disease (RSD), is a disease caused by the water mould Aphanomyces invadans, It infects many freshwater and brackish fish species in the Asia-Pacific region and Australia,

What is the best treatment for fish fungus?


When should I use API FUNGUS CURE™ fish remedy?

If your fish is exhibiting signs of a fungal infection, treat with API FUNGUS CURE fish remedy. Symptoms of a fungal infection include body slime, fin & trail rot, and eye and mouth fungus (cottony or white patches on fish). Fish that are already sick or injured are highly susceptible to fungal infections in dirty aquariums.

Should API FUNGUS CURE™ fish remedy only be used to treat fungal infections?

API FUNGUS CURE fish remedy works best when used to treat fungal infections, but can also be used to treat secondary bacterial infections. However, we recommend that you use API MELAFIX™ fish remedy or API E.M. ERYTHROMYCIN™ fish remedy to treat bacterial infections most effectively.

Do I need to remove my carbon or filter cartridge from the aquarium before dosing my tank with API FUNGUS CURE™ fish remedy?

Products that are designed to remove things from your aquarium, such as filter media, will also remove dosed fish remedy from your tank. For best results from fish remedy, remove your filtration media as you dose.

Should I keep the carbon cartridge out of the filter until treatment with API FUNGUS CURE fish remedy is finished, or should I only take it out for a few minutes before/after treating the water?

It’s recommended that you leave the carbon or carbon-containing filter cartridge out of the filter for the entire duration of treatment, removing it directly prior to the first dose of treatment. Products that are designed to remove things from your aquarium, such as carbon, will remove the dose of fish remedy from your tank if it is left within the filter or replaced before the end of treatment.

Can you eat a fish with red spot disease?

What to look for? – Fishers should be on the lookout for any:

red sores, red ulcers or red lesions on their fish.

These are caused by a fungus and can develop into secondary infections. The sores begin as small red spots on a single fish scale and can grow until scales are lost and muscle tissue becomes exposed, presenting as a severely ulcerated fish that should not be eaten. More information can be found on the DPI’s website.

Can fish recover from red spots?

Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (red spot disease) Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), also known as red spot disease (RSD) and mycotic granulomatoses (MG), is a seasonal epizootic condition of great importance in wild and farmed freshwater and estuarine fish.

It was first reported in farmed ayu ( Plecoglossus altivelis ) in Japan in 1971. It was later reported in estuarine fish, particularly grey mullet in eastern Australia in 1972. The fungus involved in EUS is also known variously as Aphanomyces invadans, A. piscicida, A. invaderis and ERA (EUS-related Aphanomyces),

Rhabdoviruses have also been associated with particular outbreaks and secondary Gram-negative bacteria invariably infect EUS lesions.

The outbreak has extended its range through Papua New Guinea into South-East and South Asia and recently into West Asia, where it has now reached Pakistan.Outbreaks of ulcerative disease in menhaden ( Brevoortia tyrannus ) in the United States of America have been shown to be very similar to EUS in Asia.Region-wide, over 50 species of fish have been confirmed by histological diagnosis to be affected by EUS, but some important culture species, including tilapia, milk fish and Chinese carp, have been shown to be resistant.

EUS occurs mostly during periods of low temperatures and after periods of heavy rainfall. These conditions favour sporulation of Aphanomyces invadans and low temperatures have been shown to delay the inflammatory response of fish to fungal infection.EUS is transmitted from one fish to another through the water supply. The susceptible life stages of the fish are usually juvenile and young adults. There is no report of EUS being found in fish fry or fish larvae. When EUS spreads into a fish culture pond, high morbidity (>50 percent) and high mortality (>50 percent) might be observed in those years that have a long cold season, with water temperatures between 18˚ and 22˚C. Some infected fish may recover when the cold period is over. EUS can be readily detected in diseased fish specimens collected from EUS-infected areas using histological techniques. Fish may exhibit red spots or small ulcers. There is no information to indicate that fish can be lifelong carriers of A. invadans. Generally, most infected fish die during an outbreak. Although some mild or moderate EUS-infected fish could recover, they are unlikely to be lifelong carriers. Control of EUS in natural waters is probably impossible. In outbreaks occurring in small, closed water-bodies, liming water and improving water quality, together with removal of infected fish, is often effective in reducing mortalities. Source: OIE : Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (red spot disease)

Is red blotch disease contagious?

Close up view of Grapevine red blotch virus foliar symptoms By: Judit Monis, Ph.D. Early this year I wrote about the Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) infection status of vines in the University of California at Davis Foundation block (also known as the Russell Ranch Foundation block).

In this article I will update the reader on GRBV biology as well as the disease status of the Russell Ranch foundation block. In spite of all the management activities performed to control the spread of the virus, the latest testing results showed a drastic increase in infection of the vines planted in the Russell Ranch foundation block.

Grapevine Red Blotch Disease is Caused by GRBV Grapevine red blotch virus is different from most other known grapevine infecting viruses in that its genetic material is DNA, rather than RNA. Both the molecular and structural characterization has placed GRBV in a new genus Grablovirus within the Geminiviridae family.

Because grapevine viruses are not mechanically transmissible to grapevines, it has been difficult to demonstrate Koch’s postulates. The postulates state that a pathogen must be isolated in pure form from a symptomatic plant, later introduced to a healthy plant, and cause the same disease symptoms seen in the original infected plant from which the virus was isolated.

Koch’s postulates show the “cause and effect” of a virus, in other words, demonstrate that a specific virus is responsible for the symptoms observed in infected vines. As hard as it has been for researchers to complete Koch’s postulates with grapevine viruses, Dr.

  1. Marc Fuchs team at Cornell University was able to show, using recombinant DNA technology, that GRBV genetic material can reproduce red blotch foliar symptoms in red fruited grapevine varieties.
  2. This is why now we call this virus Grapevine red blotch and not Grapevine red blotch associated virus (i.e., other grapevine viruses have the associated word because Koch’s postulates have not been completed).

To date it appears that GRBV is a North American virus, although the virus was detected in Chinese, Korean, Swiss, and most recently in Argentine vineyards, it appears that the material originated in North America. In contrast, other viruses such as grapevine leafroll associated viruses have a world-wide distribution (i.e., it is found everywhere grapevines are grown).

  1. In spite of the recent discovery of Grapevine red blotch virus, it was found in a UC Davis grapevine herbarium specimen indicating that this virus has been present in Californian vineyards since the 1940s.
  2. Even for an experienced professional like me, sometimes it is difficult to distinguish leafroll from red blotch disease in the vineyard.

This is especially true with red-fruited grapevine varieties such as Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, or Pinot Noir. That is why it is so important to confirm the presence of the virus with laboratory diagnostic tests. Grapevine Red Blotch Disease Transmission and Spread Grapevine red blotch virus is graft transmissible and predominantly propagated by producing cuttings of infected rootstock and scion material.

In the recent years the vectored transmission of GRBV has been determined. Work by researchers at Cornell University and the University of California showed that the three-cornered alfalfa tree hopper ( Spissistilus festinus ) is able to transmit the virus under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The three-cornered alfalfa tree hopper insect prefers to feed in legumes, grasses, and shrubs.

However, the discovery of a potential vector cannot explain the reason for the sudden discovery and rapid spread of GRBV in vineyards. While research continues to determine if other vectors are capable of transmitting GRBV it is obvious that the rapid expansion of this virus in vineyards was due to unknowingly propagating and grafting cuttings from infected vines.

  • Do We Really Understand GRBV Biology? Recent work performed at Cornell University has shown a seasonal and uneven distribution of GRBV in grapevines.
  • This contrasts the work performed in my laboratory with samples from field grown vines.
  • My research program ( ) showed that red blotch virus can be detected from any portion of the vine in high concentrations.

In other words, red blotch virus can be detected in newly expanded as well as mature leaves, petioles, lignified or green canes, as well as cordons and trunks. Further, red blotch virus was detectable throughout the different seasons of the year in samples collected from known infected vineyards in California.

  • The discrepancy might be due to a potential latent period needed for virus to move and colonize vines.
  • The Russell Ranch Foundation Block Virus Status Keeping important viruses such as the ones that cause leafroll and red blotch diseases out of productive vineyards relies on clean planting stock programs.

In California, the Grapevine Registration and Certification (R&C) is administered by the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA). A Few years ago, a new block with progeny vines produced with tissue culture and thoroughly tested using the “Protocol 2010” were planted in the UC Davis Russell Ranch block.

  • The foundation block is located in close proximity to research plots (some include trials of grapevine virus infected vines) and the town and is routinely tested by the UC Davis Foundation Plant Services (FPS) Personnel.
  • Last year in November, FPS scientists reported the progressive spread of GRBV in the Russell Ranch block.

To summarize, four vines were found infected with GRBV in 2017, in 2018 the number increased to 24 vines, in 2019 the testing results yielded over 300 vines infected with the virus. Fortunately, FPS has suspended the sale of vines from the Russell Ranch block until further notice.

  • However, potentially nurseries may have propagated vines from mother plants that were infected with the virus and could continue to disperse the virus to their mother blocks and newly planted vineyards.
  • Conclusions Guidelines are not available on the required distance between nursery and/or foundation blocks from commercial or potentially infected vineyards.

It is expected that transmission of harmful viruses will continue to occur if certified blocks are not carefully monitored and kept in isolation. The current situation of the CDFA R&C vines demonstrates the need for more applied research to mitigate disease in nursery and foundation blocks.

  • Due to the progressive spread of GRBV in the Russell Ranch Foundation Block, it appears that the only solution to produce clean planting stock is to start anew Unfortunately, no back up tissue culture material of the varieties planted at the Russell Ranch Foundation Block are available.
  • However, siblings from some of the varieties subjected to tissue culture were planted in the Classic (older) foundation.

In the future, these siblings (numbered 02 rather than 01) will be tested using the Protocol 2010 to make them available for purchase. To obtain virus free plants, the meristem tissue culture technique will need to be applied for the elimination of GRVB.

  1. Once new plants are produced, these will need to be protected from new infections.
  2. For best results, vines should be grown in insect proof greenhouses or screenhouses, and in geographical areas where grapevines are not grown.
  3. It is also advisable to keep a backup of all vine material in case infection is detected in the future.

In the meanwhile, it will be imperative for nurseries and growers to carefully determine the health status of propagated material prior to distribution and planting to avoid multiplying and introducing infected vines to the vineyard. Judit Monis, Ph.D.

Provides specialized services to help growers, vineyard managers, and nursery personnel avoid the propagation and transmission of disease caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses in their vineyard blocks. Judit (based in California) is fluent in Spanish and is available to consult in all wine grape growing regions of the word.

Please visit for information or contact [email protected] to request a consulting session at your vineyard. Email This Post

How do you get rid of fish disease?

What’s wrong with my fish? – The chart below can help identify fish health symptoms and how to help: Symptoms Disease Treatment Prevention Tattered fins, tail. Skin sores. Swollen abdomen. Bulging eyes. Red fins, skin Bacterial infection (Aeromonas, Pseudomonas) Isolate sick fish.

  • Add antibiotics to the water and use antibiotic-medicated food.
  • Maintain good water quality.
  • Quarantine any fish with signs of the disease.
  • Fuzzy spots on skin, mouth Bacterial infection (Flavobacterium) Isolate sick fish.
  • Add antibiotics to the water and use antibiotic-medicated food.
  • Maintain good water quality.

Quarantine any fish with signs of the disease. Bumpy growths on skin, fins Carp Pox Treat affected areas with topical disinfectants. Add Formalin solution to water. When adding new fish, do not add the water they came in. Quarantine new fish in a separate tank.

Use anti-bacteria-medicated fish food. White “pimples” on skin, fins Viral infection (Lymphocystis) Treat affected areas with topical disinfectant. Add Formalin solution to water. When adding new fish, do not add the water they came in. Quarantine new fish in a separate tank. Avoid contaminated live food; use anti-bacteria-medicated fish food.

Cotton-like “hair” on fish, eggs, uneaten food Water Mold Treat water with Methylene Blue, Acriflavine, Victoria Green or Malachite Green. Handle fish gently to avoid injuring skin; avoid overcrowding; keep temperature stable and water clean. Increased gill movements.

  • Fins clamped to sides.
  • Lying on bottom of tank.
  • White or grayish “slime” on skin Parasites (Costia, Chilodonella, Trichodina, Epistylus) Treat water with Formalin, Malachite Green, Acriflavine or copper sulfate When adding new fish, do not add the water they came in.
  • Quarantine new fish in a separate tank.

White speckles on body, fins. Scraping body against rocks Ich (known as freshwater white spot disease) Treat water with Formalin, Malachite Green, Acriflavine or copper sulfate When adding new fish, do not add the water they came in. Quarantine new fish in a separate tank.

  1. Golden speckles on skin Velvet Disease Treat water with copper sulfate When adding new fish, do not add the water they came in.
  2. Quarantine new fish in a separate tank.
  3. Spots on top of head, back Hole-In-the-Head Disease Feed fish food containing Metronidazole When adding new fish, do not add the water they came in.

Quarantine new fish in a separate tank. Protruding worms. Poor growth. Weight loss Camallanus Worms. Capillaria Worms Add Levamisole to food. Feed an anti-parasite medicated food. When adding new fish, do not add the water they came in. Quarantine new fish in a separate tank.

  • Avoid contaminated live food.
  • Inflamed gills.
  • Excess mucus on skin.
  • Scraping body against rocks Gill Flukes.
  • Skin Flukes Add Praziquantel to water.
  • Feed an anti-parasite-medicated food.
  • When adding new fish, do not add the water they came in.
  • Quarantine new fish in a separate tank.
  • Gray to white wormlike parasites on skin Anchor Worms Remove visible parasites with tweezers.

Add Dimilin or Trichlorfon to water. When adding new fish, do not add the water they came in. Quarantine new fish in a separate tank. Small, moving specks on fish, in water Fish Lice Add Dimilin or Trichlorfon to water When adding new fish, do not add the water they came in.

Quarantine new fish in a separate tank. Rapid gill movements. Rises to surface to gulp air Lack of oxygen Turn on filter, change water Keep filter running; use air stone and pump. Rapid gill movements. Inflamed gills. Mucus on skin. Fins clamped to sides. Lying on bottom of tank. Rapid death of multiple fish Poor water quality Treat water with ammonia remover, aquarium salt or other appropriate water-quality-improvement product.

Test water quality frequently; change water regularly; aerate and filter properly. PETSMART CARES Pets purchased at PetSmart are part of our exclusive Vet Assured™ program, designed by PetSmart veterinarians to help improve the health and well-being of our pets.

How do you cure fish diseases?

2.2.2 General Principles of Therapy – (Z. Svobodová) Fish are subjected to therapy in those cases when a disease is so developed that the life or performance of the fish is immediately endangered or expected to be endangered in the subsequent period. Therapeutic treatment should be regarded as emergency measure resorted to when prevention has failed. The therapeutic treatments may be as follows:

  1. application of therapeutic substances and preparations to the aquatic environment (therapeutic baths for fish and eggs)
  2. administration of therapeutic substances in feed
  3. administration of therapeutic substances via a probe
  4. administration of therapeutic substances by means of injections

Application of therapeutic substances and preparations to the aquatic environment (therapeutic baths for fish and eggs) Therapeutic substances are put into water to control ectoparasitic, fungal and bacterial diseases of the body surface and the gills.

  • immersion baths (up to 5 minutes)
  • short-term baths (5 minutes to 2 hours)
  • long-term baths (2 hours to several days)

The long-term baths also include the treatment, with therapeutic substances, of whole fish culture reservoirs and ponds. A list of preparations and substances most frequently used for the different types of baths is given in Table 7. Table 7: Chemical substances used for therapeutic baths of fish

Type of therapeutic bath
immersion short-term long-term
lysol NaCl malachite green
lime milk formaldehyde trichlorphon
KMnO 4 malachite green acriflavin
ammonia and malachite green antibiotics
trypaflavin and formaldehyde Metronidazol
malachite green NaCl
CuSO 4,5H 2 O KMnO 4 formaldehyde KMnO 4
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General principles of therapeutic baths for fish To perform the therapeutic baths effectively and to avoid losses of the fish, a number of general principles must be respected, including: a) The state of health of the fish stock must be continuously monitored so that the most effective therapeutic bath can be promptly chosen and applied: fish in an advanced phase of a disease are exhausted and weak and can be easily killed by exposure to the drug in the bath.

B) The results of examination of the fish serve as a basis for determining the type of therapeutic bath. Most of the therapeutic preparations are toxic to the fish at higher concentrations, so the instructions have to be strictly adhered to. The substances and preparations used for the baths must be fresh, packed in original containers.

The dose to be used in the bath must be accurately calculated to avoid poisoning the fish by overdosage, or to avoid a poor effect if the dose is too low. If the instructions state a range of doses between two limits, then the lower amount is given to the weakened fish and the higher one to fish in good condition.

The drugs must have been dissolved before application to the water; the application itself is performed by spraying over the water surface. With the substances and preparations used for long-term therapeutic treatment of fish in reservoirs and ponds, there should be a satisfactory difference between the lethal concentration (LC) for the causative agent of the disease and the LC for the fish: the therapeutic index * is to be at least 4 or above 4, 10 at the maximum.

These therapeutic means must be readily soluble in water and must easily break down. c) Fresh and uncontaminated water must be used to prepare the solution for the bath. The physico-chemical characteristics of the water influence the effectiveness of the therapeutic substances and preparations and also their toxicity to the fish.

The most important water characteristics include temperature, pH, concentration of organic substances, acid capacity (alkalinity), ∑ Ca + Mg and others. d) A tolerance test must have been conducted before any bath. The tolerance test is a bioassay on several fish to see the safety or harmfulness of the therapeutic bath for the fish stock to be treated under the existing conditions.

e) The therapeutic baths themselves are carried out in all-glass tanks, fibre-glass tubs, vats, fibre-glass plastic troughs, in concrete or earth storage basins or straight in the ponds. It is also possible to subject the fish to short-term therapeutic baths in the transport boxes during shipment if the shipment time is the same as, or shorter than, the recommended exposure time.

  • The fish should have been given no feed before an immersion bath or a short-term bath to avoid increased need for oxygen (for example, one to three feedings are skipped on the trout farms).
  • Fish exposed to long-term baths, with several days’ exposure times, have to be fed with supplementary feeds.
  • Emergency scenarios must be prepared for the prevention of possible accidents: water aeration facilities must be ready for use, or precautions should be made for promptly removing the fish from the bath and putting them in fresh (preferably flowing) water, or an emergency inlet of clean and safe water must be available for fast dilution of the bath solution.

The tanks or reservoirs with the therapeutic solutions should never be overstocked: the fish must have enough space to move freely and the solution must get to every spot on the body surface of each fish. A 100-litre bath will accommodate 30 kg of fish at the maximum and the bath solution is as a rule replaced after treating 5–10 sets of fish.

* The therapeutic index says how many times the given substance’s LC for fish is higher than that for the causative agent of the disease. For long-term baths straight in the pond, the substance or preparation is either applied in a single batch into the inlet or may be evenly distributed over the water surface in the pond.

For the whole period of treatment the flow of water through the pond must be stopped and warning plates should be placed around it. Residues of the therapeutic substance must have completely disappeared before water is allowed to flow through the pond again.

Treatment of the whole pond is seldom resorted to: it is carried out when the fish are in acute danger. It is a problem with such large scale baths that together with the causative agents of the disease the drug used in the bath also kills the organisms in the food chain, thus reducing the nourishing capacity of the pond.

f) When the treatment is finished the fish should be removed from the bath and put into clean (preferably flowing) water. If the treatment was performed in a whole pond, the inlet source must be strong enough to allow for rapid dilution of the bath solution.

  1. All regulations and standards regarding surface water quality conservation must be respected in discharging the used therapeutic solution outside the fish culture facility.
  2. In the majority of cases the used solutions are disposed of outside the aquatic environment: for example, they are left to seep into the ground in places free of the danger of penetration into surface or underground waters.

g) The effectiveness of the therapeutic baths must be checked by macro- and microscopic examination of 5 fish at the minimum from each pond or tank after the rinsing of the treated fish in clean water. This must be done immediately after the bath, within one day of the termination of the bath at the latest.

  1. H) It is a general principle that market fish should not be treated by therapeutic baths 14 days before shipment to the market.
  2. Treatment of market fish in malachite green bath must be avoided for 6 months before assumed time of consumption.
  3. I) All labour safety precautions must be taken during the treatment of fish by therapeutic baths.

A survey of the most important chemicals and preparations used in the therapeutic baths of fish. Preparing and performing the baths Sodium chloride (NaCl) is widely used in fish culture for parasite control during the rearing of the fish from the earliest stages of the fry up to the market fish.

As the difference between the lethal concentrations of sodium chloride to fish and parasites is not very large, it is necessary during the treatment to stick to the general principles, especially the instructions concerning the tolerance tests. Zinc-coated containers should never be used for the NaCl baths.

Sodium chloride is largely used in the form of short-term baths which are fairly effective in the control of the species of the genera Cryptobia, Ichthyobodo, Chilodonella, Trichodina and Trichodinella, and somewhat less effective in the control of the species of the genera Dactylogyrus, Gyrodactylus, Piscicola, Argulus, and in the cases of the fungal diseases.

The salt bath is prepared by dissolving 10 to 30 g NaCl in one litre of water. The exposure time is 15 to 30 minutes. If necessary, the salt bath may be repeated in the majority of species. In the early stages of the fry, treated at a water temperature of 20 to 25°C, good results are obtained at a concentration of 10 g per litre and at an exposure time of 30 minutes.

In cyprinid culture, NaCl concentration of 20 g per litre is used at an exposure time of 15 minutes for the treatment of weaker fry. Baths of the same characteristics may also be used for the treatment of salmonids. Stronger fry and older fish of the cyprinid group may be treated with success by a bath at a concentration of 30 g per litre for 25 to 30 minutes.

  • It should be taken into account that at water temperatures below 5°C the effectiveness of the salt baths is substantially reduced.
  • Sodium chloride may also be used for long-term baths (concentration of 1–2 g per litre, exposure time 1–2 days) in cases of occurrence of chilodonellosis in fish kept in storage ponds or provisional handling ponds in autumn or spring.

Formaldehyde is distributed in the form of 36–38% aquatic solution. The chemical to be used for parasite control in the fish must be a clear solution free of paraformaldehyde sediment (white sediment on the bottom). During the bath itself, the main factor to be taken into account (among the factors underlying the effectiveness and toxicity of the bath) is water temperature.

The market fish may be treated with formaldehyde bath 14 days before delivery to the market at the latest. Formaldehyde is largely used for the short-term baths to control pests of the genera Cryptobia, Ichthyobodo, Chilodonella, Trichodina, Trichodinella, Dactylogyrus, Gyrodactylus, and the fungal diseases.

The concentration of formaldehyde in the bath depends on water temperature. At water temperatures up to 10°C the concentration is 0.25 ml of 36–38 % aqueous solution per litre, at 10–15°C it is 0.20 ml per litre, and at a temperature above 15°C it is 0.17 ml per litre.

The time of exposure is 30 to 60 minutes. For example, a concentration of 0.25 ml per litre and exposure time of 30 minutes at a water temperature of 25°C are recommended for the treatment of the early fry stages of cyprinids and catfish. Long-exposure formaldehyde baths can be used in the same cases of long-exposure NaCl baths, the concentration of formaldehyde (36–38% aqueous solution) being 0.025–0.030 ml per litre.

The solution is unrepeatedly applied to the water inlet and there is no time limit of exposure. Malachite green is deep green in colour, readily soluble in water. Exposure to a therapeutic malachite green bath without prior tolerance test may kill a whole stock.

  • Hence, every new batch of the chemical must be tested for toxicity to fish and effectiveness of parasite control before it is used for the treatment.
  • Some limits apply to the use of malachite green in fish culture: for example, it should not be used for the treatment of the fish later than 6 month to delivery to the market (the hygiene aspect) and at the recommended concentrations and exposure times it should not be used for the treatment of the early stages of the fry (the fish safety aspect).

Malachite green is used either for the short-exposure baths or, more frequently, for long-exposure baths, especially for the control of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and also in the cases of occurrence of the species of the genera Cryptobia, Ichthyobodo, Trichodina, Trichodinella, Chilodonella and for treatment of fish against the fungal diseases.

To control the fungal diseases, it is also possible to use immersion baths in malachite green (66.7 mg per litre, exposure for 10 to 30 seconds). Recently very good results have been recorded with the use of a combined malachite green and formaldehyde bath (exposure for 2 or 6 hours). The short-term malachite green bath uses a concentration of 6.7 mg per litre and an exposure time of 1 to 1.5 hours.

At water temperatures of up to 10°C it can be performed in different types of reservoirs but when the temperature is higher it can only be done in ponds or tanks that can be drained and filled again in 30 minutes. For the long-term malachite green bath of cyprinids, the chemical is applied at a concentration of 0.5 mg per ml, after accurate calculation of the amount of water in the reservoir or tank.

For salmonids the concentration is 0.15 to 0.20 mg per 1. Upon the application of malachite green and its thorough distribution throughout the tank, the water flow is stopped and aeration is provided. Twenty-four hours later the bath is replaced: the tank is drained, clean water is left to flow through it for an hour, the tank is filled again to the same level as before and another dose of the chemical is applied.

All this is done six times. For the combined malachite green and formaldehyde bath, the water in the tank or pond should contain 0.25 mg malachite green and 0.125 ml of 36–38 % aqueous solution of formaldehyde per litre. In fibre-glass troughs the exposure time is 2 hours (with aeration provided) and in the storage ponds 6 hours.

  1. In practice this is done as follows: the pond is drained to contain half as much water as normally, the flow is adjusted to a rate at which the water is replaced in 6 hours, and the calculated amount of solution is slowly added to the water inlet.
  2. Six hours later the flow is increased to speed up the diluting process and to increase the amount of water in the tank or pond to the normal level.

When fish are treated for ichthyophpthiriasis in laminated plastic troughs, it is recommended to repeat the combined bath twice or three times in one week. Substances and preparations containing copper are used for the therapeutic baths of fish, though they have a toxic action in the aquatic environment.

CuSO 4,5H 2 O is used most frequently for the control of some fungal, parasitic and bacterial diseases of fish. At the present time its use is limited to the control of flexibacteriosis of the gills in the salmonids. It is used in the form of immersion bath (concentration 0.5 g per litre, exposure for 1 min) and good results are also obtained when the chemical is applied to a flow-through tank.

Another substance used for the parasite-control treatment of fish is copper in the form of oxychloride, It is used for short-term baths when the fish are found to harbour species of the genera Cryptobia, Trichodina, Trichodinella and Chilodonella, This substance is also a good molluscocide, used to control aquatic molluscs, especially those of the genus Lymnea, which are intermediate hosts of the causative agent of serious fish parasitoses.

Preparations based on copper oxychloride include Kuprikol 50, which contains 47.5 % of the active ingredient at the minimum. It is used at a concentration of 30–70 mg per litre for 15–30 min for the treatment of common carp and grass carp. With other fishes the therapeutic dose of Kuprikol 50 is at the level of lethal concentrations.

To kill the water molluscs, Kuprikol 50 is used at a rate of 15–30 kg per ha (if the average depth of the pond is 1 m). The therapeutic efficiency of CuSO 4,5H 2 O and copper oxychloride, as well as their toxicity to fish, is significantly influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the water.

Trichlorphon is used for long-term baths for cyprinids. For salmonids it is very poisonous, so it cannot be used for therapeutic baths in these species. The preparations on trichlorphon basis, used for the baths, are distributed under the brand names Masoten, Neguvon, Dipterex, Soldep and others. When used for fish parasite control, the trichlorphon-based preparations are applied to ponds or other fish culture facilities (tanks, troughs) at a single dose.

The minimum exposure is 48 hours. The parasites on the invaded fish are immobilized during the first day of treatment. In 24 hours the intensity of invasion is considerably reduced and the percentage of immobilized parasites highly increases, in 48 hours the treatment results in a negative parasitological finding.

  1. Preparations on the basis of trichlorphon can only be applied to ponds and other facilities with perfectly tight outlet systems.
  2. During the treatment and as long as the residues of trichlorphon and its metabolite dichlorvos remain in the water, the flow through the pond must be stopped and there must be a warning plate on the pond dam.

The water flow through the pond may be resumed 2 to 3 days after getting a negative result of the bioassay: the time of persistence of the action of trichlorphon and its metabolites is determined by bioassay on daphnias. The average persistence time of these harmful substances in the pond is 1–2 weeks at a water temperature of about 20°C and water pH of 7–8, and 2–3 months in winter, when the water temperature and the pH are low.

  1. Long-continued exposure of pond water to trichlorphon and its metabolite, dichlorvos, kills the majority of the natural food for the fish.
  2. Owing to this, full-value feeds must be administered until the natural food organisms develop again in the pond.
  3. Two weeks must have elapsed from the day of getting a negative result of the test on daphnias, before the fish may be taken from the treated pond for human consumption.

The rates of administration of Soldep, containing about 25 % trichlorphon, can be used as an example. Soldep at a concentration of 1–2.10 -3 ml.litre -1, i.e.10–20 litres per ha at an average pond depth of 1 m, is used to kill the species of the genera Dactylogyrus, Gyrodactylus, Piscicola and Argulus, and is also partly effective in the control of the genus Ergasilus.

  1. At the same concentration, Soldep also kills the intermediate hosts ( Cyclops, Mesocyclops ) of some fish parasites, e.g.
  2. The tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi.
  3. The rates of administration of other organo-phosphorus preparations is proportional to the content of the active ingredient, trichlorphon.

The use of trichlorphon-based preparations in ponds must always be well-thought and should only be resorted to when the fish stock is exposed to immediate danger. Ammonia is used in combination with trypaflavin ( acriflavin ) in the form of immersion baths to kill the pests of the genera Dactylogyrus, Gyrodactylus and Diplozoon; the same bath may also be used when species of the genera Trichodina, Trichodinella and Chilodonella are found in the fish.

  1. The ammonia and trypaflavin baths are prepared from a store solution, which consists of 100 parts of 10 % NH 4 OH and one part of 2.5 % aqueous solution of trypaflavin.
  2. The solution for the bath itself is prepared by diluting the store solution with water at a rate of 1:1000.
  3. The time for which the fish are left in the bath depends on water temperature.

At temperatures up to 12°C the exposure time is 2.5 min, at temperatures above 12°C (up to 20°C) the fish are treated for only 1.5 min. No baths are performed at temperatures above 20°C. Owing to the toxicity of ammonia to fish at higher water temperatures and water pH, the use of ammonia and trypaflavin baths has been much less frequent in recent years.

  1. Acriflavin (trypaflavin) is a brown-red crystalline powder soluble in water.
  2. The recommended therapeutic acriflavin concentrations are several times lower than the lethal concentrations to fish (the therapeutic index is about 5).
  3. For this reason, acriflavin baths can be regarded as comparatively safe to fish.

Acriflavin is used in the form of long-term baths (concentration of 10 mg per litre, exposure for 10 hours), most commonly in aquarium fish culture: owing to the long exposure time, these baths are not very common in fish farming. Acriflavin controls protozoan parasites of fish and bacterial diseases on the surface of the fish body.

German authors recommend to use long-term acriflavin baths at a concentration of 3 mg per litre (exposure time 12 hours-repated three times) for the control of local flexibacterioses in trout, eel and carp. Lime milk is prepared by dissolving 2 g of newly burnt lime in one litre of water. It is used in the form of immersion baths to kill Piscicola geometra.

Carp fry are exposed to this bath for 5 seconds. For cachectic stock fish after poor hibernation the exposure time is 10 seconds and for stock carp in good condition, and for older carp, the exposure time ranges from 15 to 20 seconds. Lime bath is not recommended for fish with sensitive gills (pike, trout).

Lysol is a disinfectant aqueous solution of cresol with potassium soap. It is used at a concentration of 2 ml per litre in the form of immersion baths (5–15 seconds) to control the species of the genera Argulus and Piscicola. Lysol is not recommended for brood fish of salmonids. Potassium permanganate is used in the form of immersion baths (1 g per litre, 30–45 seconds), short-term baths (0.1g per litre, 5–10 min; 0.01 g per litre, 60–90 min) as well as long-term baths for the control of fungal diseases, parasites (when protozooses occur) and bacterial diseases.

A potassium permanganate bath at a concentration of 1 g per litre for 150 second was tested with good results for the control of Eudiplozoon nipponicum in higher age categories of carp. This bath cannot be used at temperatures higher than 10°C. Long-term treatments are performed in storage ponds or other ponds for easy fish handling; the concentration is 0.3 to 0.6 mg KMnO 4 per litre of water, exposure time 12 hours.

The therapeutic doses of potassium permanganate are very close to the lethal concentrations to fish, so the treatment must be performed very carefully, especially with the aquarium fishes. It should be borne in mind that in summer when the water is warm these baths may be dangerous to fish. When brood fish are handled, local injuries on their bodies are treated with a pledget or sponge soaked with potassium permanganate.

Antibiotics are recommended to be used in the form of therapeutic baths to control bacterial diseases of the skin and gills of fish. These baths are used mainly in aquaristics and today also in rearing young stages of fish in special fish culture facilities.

  1. Before the treatment, the antibiotic must be well determined as to its performance in the control of the bacteria responsible for the disease the fish suffer from.
  2. The therapeutic doses of antibiotics are in the order of tens of mg per litre at long-term baths and in the order of hundreds of mg at short baths.

Entizol, whose active ingredient is metronidazol, can be used for baths at a concentration of 4 mg per litre for 2–3 days. Metronidazol is absorbed via the gills and produces in the blood a therapeutically effective concentration to kill parasitic Flagellata, e.g.

  • The genus Hexamita.
  • The bath is particularly suitable for the treatment of aquarium fishes.
  • The method of treatment using a temporary increase in water temperature is performed by successively increasing the temperature of the water with invaded fish to 31–32°C for 3 days and then reducing the temperature again to the starting level.

The fish stock gets rid of the infection and acquires an appreciable level of immunity. In fish culture practice this method is used to control ichthyophthiriasis mainly in aquarium fishes and in special warm-water fish facilities. In the rearing of the early stages of cyprinids and catfish, warming is the only efficient and practically applicable method of ichthyophthiriasis control.

Therapeutic baths of the eggs Malachite green, formaldehyde and sodium chloride are most frequently used in fish culture practice for the control of the fungal and bacterial diseases of fish eggs. Malachite green bath provides a good treatment of the eggs of carp, tench, sheatfish, pike, whitefish and salmonids; its concentrations range between about 5 and 10 mg per litre and exposure times are 5 to 30 minutes once to twice daily.

Malachite green is not used for the treatment of the eggs of herbivorous fishes: formaldehyde is better for this purpose, its concentration being 0.05 to 0.35 ml per litre and exposure time 10 minutes once in two hours. Formaldehyde bath can also be used for the treatment of other fishes eggs.

Salmonid and whitefish eggs may also be subjected to an immersion bath of sodium chloride at a concentration of 20–50 g per litre. Acriflavin (500 mg per litre, 20–30 minutes) is also recommended for these fishes. Besides these traditional preparations, combined-action iodine-detergent, Jodonal preparations such as e.g.

Wescodyne or Incodyne have recently been used on an increasing scale: these preparations control fungi and bacteria as well as the virus diseases of fish eggs. Administration of therapeutic substances in feed Administration of drugs contained in feed is now practiced increasingly frequently in all types of fish culture.

This approach is advantageous, hence promising, mainly from the point of view of fish farm operation. With cyprinids, the stock must have been attracted and concentrated, as far as possible, around the feeding places, and habituated to the administered feed, before the treatment itself can be started.

Administration of the same feed as normally, but containing the drugs, may be performed when there is plenty of oxygen in the water and the fish take the feed greedily. In larger water reservoirs it is difficult to habituate the fish to regular feeding, especially in those reservoirs where a larger amount of natural food is available.

  • With salmonids it is very easy to administer drugs with feeds.
  • Before the treatment it is recommended to skip one feeding to be sure the fish will take the medicated feed as soon and as greedily as possible.
  • The disandvantage is that the diseased fish take successively decreasing amounts of the feed offered to them.
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Heavily infected or invaded individuals do not take food at all, so the treatment has no effect on them. The therapeutic drugs are administered either as medicated granulated feeds or are admixed to the feeds straight on the fish farm. In the medicated granulated feeds the drug is incorporated in the pellets.

The pellets are hard but they soften and swell in contact with water, where they remain compact for 12 hours. Four medicated feeds are available in Czechoslovakia at present. These are: VR (formerly called Karpex; the 5 kg packages distributed through pharmacies are called Rupin). Composition: chloramphenicol palmitate 2.173 g, vitamin A 50 000 i.u., vitamin D 3 25 000 i.u., methylene blue 0.3 g, saccharin 0.05 g, anise oil 0.4 g, stabilizers and obduction substances 59.68 g, wheat flour added to make 1 kg.

Indication: treatment of carp for erythrodermatitis, possibly also to control other bacterial diseases in cyprinids. Administration: administered in the feeding place at a rate of 15 g per 1 kg of the weight of the stock per one feeding. The treatment is repeated 4 to 8 times in an interval of 2 to 3 days, depending on water temperature (two-day intervals are used when the temperature is above 20°C).

The feeding must always be adjusted so as to let the fish consume the preparation within 12 hours of administration. VR-NeO (small packages are labelled Rupin-NeO). Composition: oxytetracyclin 1.33 g, neomycin 0.67 g, methylene blue 0.3 g, feed flour to 1 kg. Indication: infectious diseases of cyprinids caused by oxytetracyclin- and neomycin-sensitive germs.

Administration: administered in the same way as VR. Taenifugin carp Composition: niclosamide piperazine salt 7 g, obduction, auxiliary and appetizing substances 46.25 g, ground limestone 100 g, wheat flour to 1 kg. Indication: bothriocephalosis, caviosis and caryophyleosis of cyprinids, proteocephalosis of rainbow trout.

Administration: Taenifugin carp is used in any season of the year when the fish take food. It is administered in the usual feeding places either once or repeatedly in 48 hours to allow a maximum number of the fish to take the pellets. The amount given to the fish should be equal to 1–2 % of the weight the fish stock has at the time of treatment.

The efficiency of the treatment must be checked by a parasitological examination of the guts 2–4 days after the treatment. If live tapeworms are found to occur again, the treatment should be repeated. Chronicin salm Composition: chloramphenicol 30.0 g, potassium propionate 100 g, feed flour to 1 kg.

  1. Indication: furunculosis of salmonids.
  2. Administration: Offer the medicated feed in the place where the common feed is normally given, do this daily for 7 days.
  3. The amount administered should correspond to 1 % of the weight of the stock at the time of administration.
  4. The administered dose of about 30 mg per 1 kg of fish weight is to provide the fish with an effective chloramphenicol level for 24 hours.

Other drugs administered in feed include, in particular, various antibiotics, sulphonamides, furazolidon, carboneum tetrachloratum, Entizol and others. These are admixed into the feeds just before administration. The best cyprinid feeds to carry the drugs are wheat groats or wheat flour high in gluten; for salmonids the best feed for such purposes is ground spleen or ground beef.

  1. Antibiotics administered in feeds are used for the control of the bacterial diseases of fishes.
  2. Chloramfenicol has been the most widely used antibiotic: it has a wide spectrum of action but at the same time a number of adverse side effects, as demonstrated in recent studies.
  3. Chloramfenicol is administered at a rate of 40–60 mg per kg of live weight of the fish for 10–14 days.

Its use is now declining, owing to the mentioned side effects. The best antibiotic for the treatment of each particular disease should preferably be selected on the basis of the results of antibiotic sensitivity tests in the pathogenic bacteria. Sulphonamides can also be used with success for the treatment of bacterial diseases of fish, especially furunculosis in salmonids.

  • They are administered in feed at a rate of 0.1–0.25 g per 1 kg of live weight of the fish for 8 days.
  • Furazolidon has been tested with success in the control of the bacterial diseases (especially furunculosis of salmonids and erythrodermatitis of carp) and parasitic diseases of fishes (particularly hexamitosis of salmonids and partly also coccidiosis in carp).

To treat the fish suffering from bacterial diseases, furazolidon is added to the feed at a rate of 0.1–0.2 g per 1 kg of the live weight of the fish and is administered for 8 days. For the control of hexamitosis of trout the rate is 0.5 g per 1 kg of the weight of the feed and the administration is continued for 10–14 days.

Carboneum tetrachloratum (CCl 4 ) is used for the control of the most widespread spiny headed worm, Neoechonorhynchus rutili. Equal parts of CCl 4 and paraffin oil are added to dry feed (groats) and the rate of administration (in single treatment) is 0.5 ml CCl 4 per 1 kg of live weight. Entizol (active ingredient metrinidazol) is a good therapeutic preparation to treat hexamitoses at a rate of 0.25 g per 1 kg of feed, the treatment being continued for 3 days.

Administration of therapeutic substances via a probe This method of drug administration is resorted to in exceptional cases to treat limited numbers of fish, e.g. for the control of bothriocephalosis and caviosis in the brood fish at sites with the occurrence of these diseases, before the brood fish are transported to another area or country.

The therapeutic substance, e.g. nitrosamine piperazine salt, is dissolved in semiliquid starch gel, which is prepared by boiling about 60 g of food starch (Solamyl) in 1 litre of water. In cyprinids the drug is administered via a thick-walled elastic hose of plastic material, connected with a syringe.

The hose is introduced along the central longitudinal axis of the upper palate. The moment when the hose hits the pharyngeal teeth can be clearly identified (by feeling the mild stroke). At this moment the hose should be inserted, with slight twisting, between the pharyngeal teeth and the crushing plate. Fig.17: Administration of drugs via a probe Administering therapeutic substances by injection In the past the injection method of administration of therapeutic substances was used on mass mainly in the treatment of stock carp. Intraperitoneal administration (into the body cavity) was used mainly with chloramphenicol and later also with the vaccine against spring viraemia (prevention of the disease).

However, mass use of these treatments is now becoming less common because of the great laboriousness and of the frequent mechanical injuries and stresses. The therapeutic and preventive substances are administered in feed, as far as possible. Nevertheless, injection treatment will continue to be practiced in small groups of fish, especially the brood fish.

Brood fish may receive in this way, for example, different antibiotics, vaccines, sexual hormones (in the prespawning period) and other substances; T-globulin injections are used in Poland to increase non-specific resistance of brood fish and their progenies.

The drug or sexual hormone is injected into the body cavity (intraperitoneal administration) or into the muscle (intramuscular administration). For the intraperitoneal injection, the site where the needle is to be injected is on the left side of the fish body at the point of intersection of two fictitious lines, the first starting at the base of the pectoral fin and runing along the longitudinal axis of the body and the other starting at about the centre of the pelvic fin and running perpendicularly to the first one (Fig.18).

The angle at which the needle is introduced into the body is also important. In the scaleless fish it should be 20 to 30 degrees, in scaly fish it should be 10 to 15 degrees, the needle passing between two successive scales (Fig.18). The drug flows easily from the needle introduced in the body wall, visible blotches occur under the skin.

For the intramuscular administration to the carp, the site of injection is on the left flank 1 to 2 cm behind the fore end of the dorsal fin and 3 to 4 cm below it (Fig.18). With other fishes the injection site is on the boundary between the first and second third of the body, 2 to 3 cm below the upper line.

The needle and the injection site should be wiped with a pledget or sponge, dipped in 1 % solution of potassium permanganate. Fig.18: Administration of drugs by injection. A – Injection site for administration of the drug into the muscle; B – into the body cavity; C – the angle at which the needle is introduced into the body of scaly fish; D – scaleless fish. Recommended literature Aldermann D.J.

(1985): Malachite green: a review.J. Fish Dis., 8, 289–298. Herwig N. (1979): Handbook of drugs and chemicals used in the treatment of fish diseases, Charles C. Thomas, Illinois, USA, pp, 272. Kouřil J. et al. (1991): Antiparasitic and antifungal baths for the early fry of common carp, phytophageous fishes and sheatfish.

Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, Vodňany, pp.8. Prost M. (1989): Fish diseases. Warszawa, PWRiL, pp.460 (in Polish). Reichenbach-Klinke H.H. (1980): Krankheiten und Schãdigungen der Fische. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, New York, pp.472.

  1. Roberts R.J.
  2. Ed) (1989): Fish pathology.
  3. Ballière Tindall, pp.467.
  4. Schãperclaus W. et al.
  5. 1979): Fischkrankheiten.
  6. Academie-Verlag, Berlin, pp.1089.
  7. Svobodová Z., Faina R.
  8. 1989): Application of Soldep preparation in fish culture.
  9. Edice Metodik, VÚRH Vodňany, No.12, pp.15 (In Czech).
  10. Svobodová Z., Faina R., Vykusová B.

(1985): Application of Kuprikol 50 preparation in fish culture. Edice Metodik, VÚRH Vodňany, No.19, pp.10 (In Czech). Tesarčík J., Rajchard J. (1983): Veterinary preparations in fish culture. Edice Metodik, VÚRH Vodňany, No.11, pp.11 (in Czech). ON 46 6809 Antiparasitic and antimycotic bath of fish.

What is the treatment of fish diseases?

Treatment – A new sore can usually be cured by adding aquarium salt to the water to help repair the infected area. Older or larger sores may be at a greater risk of bacterical infection, so the application of a water treatment like Myxazin will help treat the affected area.

Can salt cure fish fungus?

Aquarium Salt: How to Use It Properly for Treating Sick Fish Should aquarium salt be used in freshwater tanks? Some people recommend dosing it all the time to provide fish with essential electrolytes, while others say it’s mostly used for treating diseases.

After years of testing with hundreds of fish, we’ve witnessed the true power of salt. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is one of the best, all-encompassing “medications” on the market that’s effective against bacteria, fungus, and external parasites. We love it because it’s cheap, readily available in all countries, never expires, and can be easily used in low to high concentrations.

However, the reason why we typically recommend our to beginners is because different kinds of fish have different tolerance levels to salt, and it can be hard to figure out and remember the correct dosage for each species. Another disadvantage is that salt cannot be used with most live plants and snails.

Can I use table salt to treat fish fungus?

Type, Quantity, and Duration of Salt – Common table salt is suitable; however, it should be non-iodized and contain no additives. Rock Salt or Kosher salt are excellent choices, as they are pure sodium chloride with nothing else added. Water conditioner salt, sold in 50 pound bags, is good to use for ponds, but should not contain prussic acid or other additives.

  1. The quantity of salt added to the water will depend on how and what it is used for.
  2. A “dip treatment” is a short exposure to medication that is useful for the eradication of parasites,
  3. The high concentration of salt in the water will cause the parasites to come off the skin of the fish.
  4. For dips, freshwater fish can be placed in an aerated container of salted water with up to three percent salinity (10 level Tablespoons, or 5 ounces, per gallon of water) for 5 minutes, and up to 30 minutes, or until they lay on the bottom or roll on their side.

“Bath treatments” essentially mean that you are treating the entire quarantine tank; baths are useful for the treatment of stress, nitrite poisoning, and some parasites. Salt concentrations for a bath are lower, at one-half percent or less, (1 to 5 teaspoonsful per gallon of water = 0.1 – 0.5% salinity) and are maintained for up to three weeks.

How long does it take for fish fungus to go away?

How long do fish take to recover from Fin Rot? This depends on how bad the problem is to start with. By using there should be an improvement in 4-5 days. Due to fish having open wounds it is very important to keep water quality pristine, to prevent secondary infection taking place. : How long do fish take to recover from Fin Rot?

How do you treat red spot disease in goldfish?

To treat an advanced form of red pest illness, antibiotics may be required. Tetracycline and chloromycetin are a couple of the most widely used antibiotics for treating fish infections, while other antibiotics can also be utilized.

Can fish disease spread humans?

Although fish can make entertaining and calming pets, fish owners should be aware that fish sometimes carry germs that can make people sick. Although rare, germs from fish and the water they live in can cause a variety of illnesses in people.

Do fish heal on their own?

Injury in Aquarium Fish – Everything You Need To Know Physical injury is not new among pets. The new aquarists may think that fish escape from physical injuries as they are inside a closed ecosystem which is the tank. However, on the contrary, fish often get physical injuries and hurt themselves and their different body parts during their life in the aquarium.

While most of the time, these injuries go unnoticed as they are very small and didn’t require any special attention, serious injuries need immediate action to avoid further complications. Fish often get lighter injuries when there is an aggressive fish in the tank that likes to attack and mess with the other tank mates.

Such light injuries can heal on their own. However, when you notice that fish is under stress, not looking well, eating less, and gasping for air on the tank’s surface, it’s time to take immediate action and check out for the injuries. When serious injuries are not dealt with on time, they welcome different kinds of infections and eventually turn into wounds.

Different causes of injuries in aquarium fish Although fish live in a closed ecosystem, they are not completely safe. Apart from aggressive fish, there could be many reasons that could lead to injuries among them. However, here are a few major reasons that may lead to injuries among fish. Fish Fight – When you have a stock with a variety of fish, there are chances that some would be shy and some violent in nature.

Aggressive fish like Tiger Barb, Red Tail Shark, Flowerhorn Cichlid, Bucktooth Tetra, Afer Knife, and a few more that show aggressive behavior love fighting with other fish for no reason. On the other hand, some shy fish like Koi Angelfish, Marble Angelfish, Gold Pearscale, Sunset Blushing Veil Angelfish prefer living in peace.

  1. Most of the time, the shy fish get injuries when the aggressive ones start dodging them for no reason.
  2. Sharp edges of décor items – We all love to have different types of décor pieces inside the tank to make it look more attractive.
  3. Colorful stones, driftwoods, synthetic corals, figurines are some common décor items that people have in their tank.

Although these products are sold in a nice condition where there are no sharp edges, with time, they may develop a few and cause harm to the fish. Therefore, you need to keep an eye on the décor items of the tank and check them from time to time to see if they have soft or sharp edges.

Handling – When you are a new aquarist and replacing the water or making routine checks of the tank, you may need to transfer your fish from one tank to another. Chasing the fish around the tank can cause them to rub against rocks and sides of the tank, leading the physical injuries. Even when you use a net while chasing them, the scales get detached, and fin membranes tear.

Unsuccessful predation – Generally, we think that tank mates do not eat each other, but you should not forget that fish are opportunistic. There is an old aquarium saying that “if a fish can fit into another fish’s mouth, chances are it will end up there.” Even the more peaceful fish may eat up the smaller fish of the tank if there is a lack of food.

The small fish try to escape, and thus, when such predation remains unsuccessful, the smaller one ends up getting injuries after the fight. Collisions – Fish are great swimmers indeed, but they often collide with the walls of the tank, décor items, rocks, stones, etc. Although such collisions are not deadly, they may cause some abnormality or deformity in different parts of the body.

Some collisions are so hard that they may affect the internal organs of the body too. Bumps on the head or swelling around the mouth are often seen among the aquarium fish that generally occur due to collisions. Abrasions – Abrasions often occur by the use of the wrong substrate.

  • If you have burrowing aquarium fish like spiny eels and rays and those that prefer dwelling at the bottom, you need to have a substrate that will not harm them.
  • Sharp sand and coarse gravel will affect the bottom dwellers negatively.
  • Injuries due to abrasions often lead to secondary infections.
  • How to avoid aquarium fish injury The first thing an aquarium owner can do is to identify the cause of injury to avoid it.

So let’s check out how we can handle and avoid the different causes of injury.

Do not keep too many aggressive fish in the tank – Being notorious in nature, aggressive fish love fighting with their tank mates and irritate them for no reason. So, try to minimize their number so that all can live peacefully. Check the décor items – Keep an eye on your aquarium’s décor items, especially for the presence of any sharp edge. Feel the edges by touching them, and assure that all are smooth and will not cause any physical injury when the fish rub through them. Handle the fish properly – Use the right net while you handle the fish. For smaller fish, go for a fine net so that their fins and scales do not damage. If you are transferring the fish, use a container rather than the net for maximum safety. Control fin nipping – Often, fish start fin nipping due to various reasons like aggressive behavior, feeding time, etc. At times, the fish just like to explore and start nipping the fins. But the good part is the nibbed fins grow back. You just have to make sure that nipped fins are not wounded or infected. Put the fish in the right size of the tank – The major reason behind fish collision is the use of small size tanks. Fish often collide when there is little space for them to swim. So, pick the right size of the tank. Additionally, try not to expose fish to anything that likely to make them jump. For instance, if you turn the lights of the room before turning the lights of the aquarium, the fish get baffled and start to jump and get injuries by colliding. Use the right substrate – Often overlooked, substrate choice can affect the fish significantly. For instance, catfish and loaches lose their barbels when kept in aquariums with sharp sand or coarse gravel. However, when the fish are kept in tanks with a safer substrate, the barbles grow back.

Treating the physical injury The first thing you can do when you notice any of your fish is injured is isolating it in a quarantine tank. In the quarantine tank, the fish will find a de-stressing environment where there will be no fish to injure it further, and the wounds will heal at a much faster rate.

  • You can also provide the required medications in the quarantine tank’s water, like antibiotics that will prevent the wound the get further infected.
  • It is recommended to keep the pH of the quarantine tank lower, around 6.6, if the fish can withstand it.
  • Low pH is believed to fasten the healing process.

Injury on fins and scales Generally, when the scales and fins of the fish are damaged, they heal on their own and did not require any special treatment. However, if you are witnessing patches of blood or visible muscle, or there are symptoms of fin rot, you can provide anti-fin rot, antibacterial or anti-fungal treatment as your fish vet suggests.

Damage on the eye due to injury There could be superficial damage to the fish, which is seen as slight cloudiness on the fish’s cornea. If you keep the water quality good and every water parameter within the right limit, the eye damage will heal naturally. However, sometimes when eye damage didn’t heal and got worse, it may lead to serious conditions like popeye and sometimes partial loss of vision.

Although vision loss does not probe any other health complications, a fish that cannot see properly cannot perform a lot of tasks like feeding and become an easy predation option for the hunter fish. Conclusion Physical damage on any part is distressing for the fish.

  • The fish’s body works to repair the damaged part and heal the wound.
  • Whether it is about damaged fins, scales, bumps on the head, swelling on the mouth, or any eye injury, the fish gets into stress.
  • Stress often leads to lowering the immune response that invites different bacterial, viral, and fungal infections.

Therefore, the priority of every fish owner should always be to protect the fish from getting such physical injuries. It will prevent further diseases and infections that may occur due to them. Apart from that, always feed healthy food, so that fish’s body heals up naturally and easily fight off the infections.

Why do fish get spots?

Blog – How to solve the problem of white spot in your freshwater aquarium White spot disease, also known as Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, or Ich, is a very common parasitic disease which affects fish and is highly persistent! Once these parasites are detected inside an aquarium, the disease is particularly difficult to stub out due to remarkably fast reproduction rates.

  1. In this blog we will talk you through some valuable treatments that can be used to overcome white spot in fish, as well as some common causes that are worth knowing about.
  2. White spot is caused in aquarium fish when a protozoan attaches itself to their body, fins and gills.
  3. The contagious disease shows itself as tiny white spots on the fish’s body.
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These parasites appear like small grains of salt or sugar and can cause damage to a fish’s breathing ability as well as mobility problems. The parasites the cause white spot affect fish in two stages. The first “free” phase is where the parasites will rapidly reproduce.

  • The second stage is where the parasites will feed off the tissues of the infected fish.
  • During this infecting stage, the parasite will pass through any part of the skin by invading the area.
  • Worst of all, once the parasite has finished feeding and infecting, it will release itself from the surface of the skin, gills and fins of the fish and drop to the bottom of the tank where it will then multiply, producing up to 2000 new parasites.

It is therefore easy to appreciate just how fast growing the condition can be amongst a community of once healthy fish. If an untreated white spot tank is left, a 100% mortality rate of aquarium fish can be expected. Fish that have become infected with white spot will show signs within the early stage of the illness such as disordered swimming and fins folded against the body.

  • When the fish start showing signs of scratching themselves up against stones, it indicates that the parasites have crossed the protective mucus membrane of the skin and are now in the second stage of infection.
  • Other signs include the recognized white spots which start off as a pin head size on the fins.

They can be detected under direct light and continue to cover the surface area of the body where the fish may even be spotted swimming to the surface of the water more frequently, indicating that the parasites are affecting the gills and causing breathing difficulties.

  • The parasites will eventually affect the eye muscles and peri-orbital tissues causing the eyeball to swell out.
  • So let’s explain a little about what causes white spot, along with some preventative measures before we go on to talk about the treatment for the condition: It may be worth knowing that White spot can be triggered by stress caused by unusual changes to environmental conditions.

Temperature conditions are particularly significant if say for example, cooler water is added to an already established water tank temperature. It is also worth understanding that parasites can be introduced into an aquarium if products are not fully cleaned once purchased from a supplier.

  • The same goes for aquatic plants.
  • Thirdly, introducing fish who are carrying the parasite can prove detrimental to the health of your existing fish.
  • Fish sourced from a poorly maintained tank can soon infect a new, clean one.
  • In order to look at ways to prevent white spot from ever occurring inside your aquarium, we need to consider reducing the risk of the above causes occurring.

As temperatures can affect the environment of your aquarium, it would be a reasonable caution to maintain optimum levels of PH and temperature within your tank. Replacing old water with high quality water that has the same temperature as the community within the tank, is a sensible preventative measure for avoiding white spot.

As white spot can be introduced from ornaments, decorative products, fish and plants that have come from infected environments, ensure that your fish and plants are sourced from healthy aquariums prior to releasing them into your tank. It is also worth considering observing a quarantine period of at least two weeks prior to introducing new fish into your tank, regardless of where these are sourced from to check for signs of any fish displaying signs of poor health.

Boiling/sterilizing ornaments and decorative products will also help to reduce the risk of infecting your already-established tank. Finally, ensure that new plants are cleaned with a strong disinfectant before introducing them to your aquarium. Caution, never boil aquarium rocks though as trapped air pockets can force the rocks to explode! Now we will give you some guidance on how best to treat the effects of White spot in your aquatic fish: You may be surprised to learn that it is possible to combat parasites of white spot by accelerating their biological cycle, decreasing the window of exposure opportunity, and ensuring that the medicines used are as effective as possible.

By increasing tropical water temperatures to 30 degrees Celsius (and cold water temperatures to 22 degrees Celsius), white spot can be slowed down in its very early stages. In terms of targeting white spot with medication to ensure it is truly eradicated – this can only be done at a key stage in the parasite’s life cycle.

Treatment such as anti-parasitic medications like and will only be effective during the first free phase where the parasite is rapidly reproducing. Once the white spot parasites have entered their second stage and broken through the surface skin of the fish, treatment will unfortunately not work.

How long do ich spots stay on fish?

Ich: Information and Treatment – If you’ve kept fish for any amount of time, you know the story: you look into your tank one day and you see it. The white spots. Maybe it’s only one or two on a single fish’s fin, maybe it’s coating every fish like they’ve been rolled in table salt.

You have Ich in your tank. Now what? First, don’t panic. Let’s learn a bit more about your foe before we discuss how to beat it. Ich (Ichthyopthirius multifiliis), also known as White Spot Disease, is actually a parasite which can be transmitted to your tank from equipment, plants, or stock that is carrying the parasite, even without showing symptoms.

Some in the fish keeping community even believe ich is present in any tank that holds fish. Either way, once it finds its way to your tank, you will want to act fast. Thankfully, treatment is usually effective, but you need to be prepared for a few days to over a week of treating the affected fish and water.

  1. And you will have to treat the water, as Ich has three distinct forms.
  2. The parasitic trophont stage is what you see on your fish, the raised white cyst containing the Ich.
  3. Once it has fed off the host fish, the cyst drops off and becomes the reproductive tomont stage, falling to the bottom of the tank and dividing into multiple cells which eventually burst and scatter through the water column as the infectious theront stage.

The entire life cycle of Ich, from when you first see it on your fish to when it becomes infectious once more lasts about 6 days at the average aquarium temperature of 78 degrees, If you don’t stop the cycle, it will continue to reinfect your fish. Quick action is best to save your fish the pain and discomfort of the ich infection.

So now you act. Assume that if you see one fish infected with Ich in your tank, all of the fish have it. Some Ich infections are only in the gills and never show any signs on the body of the fish. Better safe than sorry. Treating Ich is relatively straightforward, but there are a few things you can do individually or in tandem with other treatments.

The easiest treatment method is to buy an Ich treatment from your local pet supply shop. Most are made with formaldehyde, malachite green, or copper sulfate, or a combination of these ingredients. My personal favorite treatment is Hikari Ich X. It is safe for most fish and invertebrates and more gentle than some treatments.

  • Remove any charcoal filtering from your tank before adding any medications.
  • It is recommended to slowly increase the temperature in your aquarium to 86 degrees over the course of a day to speed up the life cycle and reduce treatment times.
  • Some aquarists use only heat and salt, but this method is much slower than using a chemical treatment and cannot be used if you have any live plants in your tank.

It is always best to treat your tanks for at least one additional day after you have seen the last spots on your fish to be sure the parasite has been eliminated. After treatment, return the charcoal to your filter (if using) and do a partial water change, being sure to try to clean the gravel to remove any reproductive tomont that might remain.

  • That’s it! You’re done! And, as an added bonus, studies have shown that fish who survive an Ich infection show full to partial immunity to further infections.
  • But of course, as with all aquarium illnesses, prevention is the best action.
  • Please remember to quarantine all new fish for one week to monitor for signs of illness before adding them to your tanks.

But if stress causes an outbreak or a new fish escapes detection and you find Ich in your tank remember not to panic. Ich is not a death sentence. And if you’re in the hobby for any amount of time, you will have to deal with it at some point. Now you’re armed with information on how to do it! : Ich: Information and Treatment –

What causes red blotch disease?

Cause – Red blotch is caused by grapevine red blotch virus or grapevine red blotch-associated Virus (GRBaV), a single-stranded circular DNA virus. GRBaV is a member of the genus Grablovirus, and is one of only a few geminiviruses currently known to infect woody perennial plants, Within GRBaV, two groups of genetic variants have been identified so far.

What is blotch disease caused by?

Epidemiology – The leaf blotch disease is caused by Taphrina maculans, an ascomycetous fungus. The fungus is reported to be active during moist cloudy weather which is very common during the SW monsoon in India, especially during the months of August and September.

  • A temperature range of 25–30°C is reported to predispose the plant to infection ( Upadhyay and Pavgi, 1967a ).
  • The primary source of inoculum is soil borne which survives in dried trash leaves of the host in the field and starts to affect first the lower leaves.
  • Subsequent spread of the inoculum is through the air, which can be severe in intensity during October and November, when ambient temperature falls to 21–23°C, with relative humidity of 80% ( Ahmad and Kulkarni, 1968 ).

Secondary infection is by ascospores discharged from successively maturing asci, which grow into octosporus microcolonies and infect fresh leaves without any dormancy. The primary infections are less harmful than the secondary ones, inciting profuse spots covering the entire foliage ( Upadhyay and Pavgi,1966 ).

The disease perpetuates from one season to another through ascospores and blastospores ejected from mature asci during the crop season and oversummering in the soil and leaf trash ( Upadhyay and Pavgi, 1967b ).C. amada ( Pavgi and Upadhyay, 1964 ), C. angustifolia, Zingiber cassumnar, Z. zerumbet, and Hedychium sp.

( Butler, 1918 ) are reported to serve as alternate hosts of T. maculans, Read full chapter URL:

How does red blotch spread?

OWRI’s Red Blotch Study Team – Grapevine red blotch disease (GRBD) is a concern for many growers and winemakers in Oregon’s wine industry. Although first expressed in Cabernet Sauvignon in Napa Valley, California roughly a decade ago, it has since been characterized as affecting along the West Coast.

  • While producers fear that infected vineyards will require removal and replacement of their vines, winemakers worry about the virus is affecting wine quality.
  • Scientists at Oregon State University are researching the effects that GRBD will have on the Oregon wine industry and are exploring management techniques for growers and winemakers to help subdue GRBD effects.

Grapevine Red Blotch Disease is caused by a virus and is transmitted through infected plant material (bud wood or plants) at grafting or propagating from infected plants. By purchasing certified plants, also known as “clean plant material,” that are free of all known viruses, growers can minimize risk of planting vines already infected with the virus.

  • However, researchers believe that there may be insect vectors that can transport the virus from infected vines to healthy vines.
  • Some lab studies have demonstrated transmission from insects of the treehopper and leafhopper families, including the Three-Cornered Alfalfa Hopper and the Virginia Creeper Leafhopper.

However, transmission has not been proven in commercial vineyards. Oregon State University scientists have focused on two main areas for studying GRBD vectors: 1) investigating species of tree and leafhoppers that exist in Oregon, and 2) looking for other potential insect vector species that exist within infected vineyards thought to have virus spread.

USDA-ARS plant pathologist, Dr. Bob Martin has been conducting GRBD research for more than five years. He has been investigating different potential vectors and identifying what time of year transmission occurs. For the past two seasons, he has collaborated with USDA-ARS entomologist, to collect and analyze thousands of potential insect vectors and test them in the lab by way of an exposure test to see if they will transmit the virus.

They have conducted these tests with insects found in vineyards throughout western Oregon by placing them with vines infected with GRBD for one week, then introducing them to clean plant material for another week. By testing the clean plant material that has come in contact with the insect, they can determine if virus transmission occurs, but it takes time.

The virus is known to have a long latency period from infection to receiving a positive diagnosis by lab testing (PCR assay). Oregon State University’s, a professor and entomologist in the Department of Horticulture, is also working on identifying insects that can vector the virus. Walton’s research focuses on determining environmentally sustainable pest management strategies for agriculturalists by researching insect physiology and biological behaviors while also learning new information about how insects interact with the environment.

Dr. Walton has worked extensively with mealybugs, a known vector of grapevine leafroll virus, another important virus of vineyards; he used this expertise to guide his GRBD vector experiments. His lab has been working with insect vibration signals to help look for insect vectors of GRBD.

Insects communicate with vibration signals. These signals are recorded and then played back within the field to attract other insects. Rivalry signals may also be used as a repelling agent. This technique has been used as a trapping method to determine what insects are present in a vineyard. To date, the Walton Lab has not identified an insect vector that can continually repeat any positive transmissions of the virus.

, assistant professor and viticulturist at OSU’s Southern Oregon Research and Extension Center (SOREC), has been working with GRBD since 2016 alongside, Dr. Achala KC, assistant professor and plant pathologist, also located at SOREC. Dr. Levin’s research focuses on characterizing vine responses to the virus infection through interaction of environmental stresses, primarily water deficit.

  1. With southern Oregon’s warmer climate, vines affected by GRBD have been observed showing greater signs of stress.
  2. He has been evaluating different vineyard management strategies such as increased fertilizer and water inputs, reducing crop load, and the use of different rootstocks to determine the impact on GRBD infected vine responses.

Drs. Levin and KC found water deficit reduces fruit quality in GRBD infected vines. Keeping vines well-watered, growers may be able to mitigate the negative fruit quality effects of the virus. For the crop load experiments, Dr. Levin found that a reduced crop load showed only a slight decrease in negative effects compared to vines with an average to heavy load.

He continues his work by adjusting his experiments to create less stress on the plant, including more fertilizer, more water, and less crop. In general, they have found that less stressed vines expressed less disease severity, which means more healthy leaves in a vine canopy. They have two seasons of data so far and are finding greater differences in fruit ripening between well-watered and less irrigated treatments.

However, they continue to conduct additional seasons of research to understand long-term impacts. has been researching ways to improve GRBD disease diagnosis. To confirm that vines are infected, growers submit plant samples to a plant disease testing lab to determine if the virus is present.

Dr. KC is determining the best types of grapevine tissue to collect to increase the accuracy of disease diagnosis. She has found that the older petioles on leaves at the base of the vine’s canopy provide a more accurate test result on GRBD diagnosis. The samples can be collected as early as fruit set in a mature vineyard.

However, late-season sampling is best, and she recommends sampling at or after harvest is when visual symptoms are present. Finding the right plant tissue to sample will help researchers to set up research trials earlier in the summer, rather than waiting until late in a crop year to see symptom expression to identify GRBD positive vines for research.

In many cases, vines may be infected but do not show symptoms, resulting in inconsistent data for researchers trying to understand the virus. The research team continues to explore virus detection methods to be able to correlate virus quantity and symptom expression or severity of symptoms., Professor and Viticulture Extension Specialist, is working to characterize GRBD symptomology of vineyards in the Willamette Valley.

As an Extension specialist, she always has the producers in mind and aims to find practical and sustainable solutions. Since there is no way to cure a grapevine virus, the only option to eradicate the virus is to rip out the vineyard. However, this is not always possible or practical given the amount of financial investment in a commercial vineyard.

  • Therefore, Dr.
  • Skinkis is looking for ways to manage the virus and mitigate its effects related to delayed ripening and lower fruit quality.
  • Her lab has studied GRBD infected vineyards since 2017.
  • By tracking the incidence severity of the symptoms, her lab hoped to find important physiological performance impacts to target with vineyard management treatments.

There have been minimum impacts of the virus on the vineyard sites researched in the Willamette Valley. However, she began to investigate different management techniques to help minimize virus effects, focusing on enhancing fruit ripening. The trials included a leaf removal experiment that evaluated removing more cluster zone leaves earlier in the season to help increase fruit color and phenolics compared to industry-standard practice.

Her lab also conducted an abscisic acid (ABA) trial that involved applying ABA to the fruit at the beginning of ripening to enhance the ripening process. This work was in cooperation with OSU food science researchers, including, Extension Enologist,, sensory scientist, and, flavor chemist. Results to date show that early season leaf removal can enhance color, phenolics, and aromas.

However, the ABA application was not found to be effective. The most important finding of the research is that vineyards with less abiotic stress had fewer symptoms of the virus, thus she is encouraging growers to “baby their vines” by reducing competition with cover crops or providing irrigation to mitigate the impacts of the virus.

The industry is intrigued to know how GRBD affects wine quality. For this reason, scientists from the OSU Department of Food Science and Technology, including Drs. James Osborne, Michael Qian, and Elizabeth Tomasino, have partnered with viticulture researchers to produce wines from field trials and carry out compositional analyses and sensory panels.

Dr. Osborne, Enology Extension Specialist, focuses on the overall quality of the wine derived from GRBD infected vineyards as well as the fermentation dynamics that occur. Dr. Qian has been analyzing volatile aroma compounds of wines produced and has also conducted compositional analyses of phenolics.

  1. Dr. Tomasino is conducting sensory analysis of the research wines.
  2. To date, results show that there are few and inconsistent differences in wine composition, and sensory analysis by wine experts reveal little to no distinction between healthy and GRBD infected wines.
  3. With GRBD affecting many vineyards along the West Coast, researchers are working to help identify the virus impacts and find management techniques that vineyards and wineries can provide some solutions.

There are still many years of research ahead, and with the help of a, researchers from UC Davis, UC Berkley and OSU can continue to examine GRBD. With a $162 billion U.S. grape industry at risk, researchers are determined to set the industry’s mind at ease by continuing to study the virus, its effects on grapevines and wines, and identify any possible insect vectors to configure a long-term disease management plan.

  • With the effects on wine quality research still in process, we hope to better understand impacts of the virus in the near future.
  • This article was written by Makenzie Blaylock, an undergraduate student in the Department of Horticulture and student research assistant in the lab of Dr.
  • Patty Skinkis, Professor and Viticulture Extension Specialist.

: Red Blotch Disease

What are the little spots on my fish?

Parasites in Fish – Several factors influence the health of aquarium fish, and parasitic disease is a major one. Several major groups of parasites can be seen in aquarium fish. Protozoans are single-celled organisms that typically have a direct lifecycle, requiring no intermediate host to reproduce.

  1. Monogenetic trematodes (flatworms or flukes) commonly invade the gills, skin, and fins of fish.
  2. They have no intermediate host, but are host- and site-specific—if they are found in one species, they usually will not spread to other species of fish, even in the same tank.
  3. Types of Parasites Digenetic trematodes (grubs) have a complex lifecycle involving a series of hosts, including snails and birds, nematodes and leeches, meaning they cannot complete their lifecycle in an aquarium because they cannot reproduce.

Crustacean parasites come in many types, such as Argulus (fish louse), Lernaea (anchor worm), and Ergasilus (gill lice). Most of the parasitic diseases encountered in aquarium fish are protozoan parasites, especially those that cause white spot disease.

White spot disease is a very common problem in freshwater aquarium fish. The disease is caused by the ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, commonly called ich or ick. Fish infected with ich typically develop small, blister-like, raised lesions (white spots) on the skin and/or fins. If the infection is restricted to the gills, however, no white spots will be seen.

Ich infects almost all freshwater fish and has a high mortality rate. All the fish in a tank could be easily killed in a short period. Some aquarium fish may be more sensitive to ich infection than other species, but no fish species has complete natural resistance to ich.

What are the pink spots on my fish?

What Is Lymphocystis? – Lymphocystis is a viral disease in fish. A member of the iridovirus family, these viruses are classified by having double-stranded DNA structures. They are found throughout the animal kingdom, including amphibians, invertebrates and both freshwater and marine fish. They are related to megalocytivirus, which are also members of the iridoviruses.