Inflammation Notes Pdf


Inflammation Notes Pdf

What is inflammation short notes?

When a wound swells up, turns red and hurts, it may be a sign of inflammation. Very generally speaking, inflammation is the body’s immune system’s response to an irritant. The irritant might be a germ, but it could also be a foreign object, such as a splinter in your finger.

What are the 5 principles of inflammation?

The cardinal signs of inflammation include: pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Some of these indicators can be seen here due to an allergic reaction.
Specialty Immunology, rheumatology
Symptoms Heat, pain, redness, swelling
Complications Asthma, pneumonia, autoimmune diseases
Duration Acute : few days Chronic : up to many months, or years
Causes Infection, physical injury, autoimmune disorder

Inflammation (from Latin : inflammatio ) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

The function of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, and initiate tissue repair. The five cardinal signs are heat, pain, redness, swelling, and loss of function (Latin calor, dolor, rubor, tumor, and functio laesa ).

Inflammation is a generic response, and therefore it is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity, as compared to adaptive immunity, which is specific for each pathogen. Too little inflammation could lead to progressive tissue destruction by the harmful stimulus (e.g.

  1. Bacteria) and compromise the survival of the organism.
  2. In contrast, too much inflammation, in the form of chronic inflammation, is associated with various diseases, such as hay fever, periodontal disease, atherosclerosis, and osteoarthritis,
  3. Inflammation can be classified as either acute or chronic,

Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli, and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes (in particular granulocytes ) from the blood into the injured tissues. A series of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, and various cells within the injured tissue.

Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells present at the site of inflammation, such as mononuclear cells, and is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process. Inflammation has also been classified as Type 1 and Type 2 based on the type of cytokines and helper T cells (Th1 and Th2) involved.

Inflammation is not a synonym for infection, Infection describes the interaction between the action of microbial invasion and the reaction of the body’s inflammatory response—the two components are considered together when discussing an infection, and the word is used to imply a microbial invasive cause for the observed inflammatory reaction.

Inflammation, on the other hand, describes purely the body’s immunovascular response—whatever the cause may be. But because of how often the two are correlated, words ending in the suffix -itis (which refers to inflammation) are sometimes informally described as referring to infection. For example, the word urethritis strictly means only “urethral inflammation”, but clinical health care providers usually discuss urethritis as a urethral infection because urethral microbial invasion is the most common cause of urethritis.

However, the inflammation–infection distinction becomes crucial for situations in pathology and medical diagnosis where inflammation is not driven by microbial invasion, such as the cases of atherosclerosis, trauma, ischemia, and autoimmune diseases (including type III hypersensitivity ).

What is the definition of inflammation in PDF?

Definition: Inflammation is a local response (reaction) of living vascularized tissues. to endogenous and exogenous stimuli. The term is derived from the Latin. ‘inflammare’ meaning to burn.

What are the 3 phases of inflammation?

There are three main types of inflammation: acute inflammation, which lasts several days; subacute inflammation, which lasts from 2 to 6 weeks; and finally, chronic inflammation, which can last for months or even years.

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What is the basic principle of inflammation?

INTRODUCTION – Inflammation is the immune system’s response to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, toxic compounds, or irradiation, and acts by removing injurious stimuli and initiating the healing process, Inflammation is therefore a defense mechanism that is vital to health,

Usually, during acute inflammatory responses, cellular and molecular events and interactions efficiently minimize impending injury or infection. This mitigation process contributes to restoration of tissue homeostasis and resolution of the acute inflammation. However, uncontrolled acute inflammation may become chronic, contributing to a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases,

At the tissue level, inflammation is characterized by redness, swelling, heat, pain, and loss of tissue function, which result from local immune, vascular and inflammatory cell responses to infection or injury, Important microcirculatory events that occur during the inflammatory process include vascular permeability changes, leukocyte recruitment and accumulation, and inflammatory mediator release,

  1. Various pathogenic factors, such as infection, tissue injury, or cardiac infarction, can induce inflammation by causing tissue damage.
  2. The etiologies of inflammation can be infectious or non-infectious (Table ​ 1 ).
  3. In response to tissue injury, the body initiates a chemical signaling cascade that stimulates responses aimed at healing affected tissues.

These signals activate leukocyte chemotaxis from the general circulation to sites of damage. These activated leukocytes produce cytokines that induce inflammatory responses,

Why is inflammation caused?

Inflammation is a process by which your body’s white blood cells and the things they make protect you from infection from outside invaders, such as bacteria and viruses. But in some diseases, like arthritis, your body’s defense system – your immune system – triggers inflammation when there are no invaders to fight off.

In these autoimmune diseases, your immune system acts as if regular tissues are infected or somehow unusual, causing damage. Inflammation can be either short-lived ( acute ) or long-lasting ( chronic ). Acute inflammation goes away within hours or days. Chronic inflammation can last months or years, even after the first trigger is gone.

Conditions linked to chronic inflammation include:

Cancer Heart disease Diabetes Asthma Alzheimer’s disease

Some types of arthritis are the result of inflammation, such as:

Rheumatoid arthritis Psoriatic arthritis Gouty arthritis

Other painful conditions of the joints and musculoskeletal system that may not be related to inflammation include osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, muscular low back pain, and muscular neck pain, Symptoms of inflammation include:

RednessA swollen joint that may be warm to the touch Joint pain Joint stiffness A joint that doesn’t work as well as it should

Often, you’ll have only a few of these symptoms. Inflammation may also cause flu-like symptoms including:

Fever Chills Fatigue /loss of energy Headaches Loss of appetiteMuscle stiffness

When inflammation happens, chemicals from your body’s white blood cells enter your blood or tissues to protect your body from invaders. This raises the blood flow to the area of injury or infection. It can cause redness and warmth. Some of the chemicals cause fluid to leak into your tissues, resulting in swelling. Your doctor will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam, focusing on:

The pattern of painful joints and whether there are signs of inflammationWhether your joints are stiff in the morningAny other symptoms

They’ll also look at the results of X-rays and blood tests for biomarkers such as:

C-reactive protein (CRP)Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)

Inflammation can affect your organs as part of an autoimmune disorder. The symptoms depend on which organs are affected. For example:

Inflammation of your heart ( myocarditis ) may cause shortness of breath or fluid buildup.Inflammation of the small tubes that take air to your lungs may cause shortness of breath.Inflammation of your kidneys (nephritis) may cause high blood pressure or kidney failure.

You might not have pain with an inflammatory disease, because many organs don’t have many pain-sensitive nerves. Treatment for inflammatory diseases may include medications, rest, exercise, and surgery to correct joint damage, Your treatment plan will depend on several things, including your type of disease, your age, the medications you’re taking, your overall health, and how severe the symptoms are.

Correct, control, or slow down the disease processAvoid or change activities that aggravate painEase pain through pain medications and anti-inflammatory drugsKeep joint movement and muscle strength through physical therapy Lower stress on joints by using braces, splints, or canes as needed

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Medications Many drugs can ease pain, swelling and inflammation. They may also prevent or slow inflammatory disease. Doctors often prescribe more than one. The medications include:

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDs, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen )Corticosteroids (such as prednisone)Antimalarial medications (such as hydroxychloroquine )Other medicines known as disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), including azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, leflunomide, methotrexate, and sulfasalazine Biologic drugs such as abatacept, adalimumab, certolizumab, etanercept, infliximab, golimumab, rituximab, and tocilizumab

Some of these are also used to treat conditions such as cancer or inflammatory bowel disease, or to prevent organ rejection after a transplant. But when ” chemotherapy ” types of medications (such as methotrexate or cyclophosphamide) are used to treat inflammatory diseases, they tend to have lower doses and less risk of side effects than when they’re prescribed for cancer treatment,

Quit smoking,Limit how much alcohol you drink.Keep a healthy weight, Manage stress,Get regular physical activity,Try supplements such as omega-3 fatty acids, white willow bark, curcumin, green tea, or capsaicin, Magnesium and vitamins B6, C, D, and E also have some anti-inflammatory effects. Talk with your doctor before starting any supplement.

Surgery You may need surgery if inflammation has severely damaged your joints. Common procedures include:

Arthroscopy. Your doctor makes a few small cuts around the affected joint. They insert thin instruments to fix tears, repair damaged tissue, or take out bits of cartilage or bone, Osteotomy. Your doctor takes out part of the bone near a damaged joint. Synovectomy. All or part of the lining of the joint (called the synovium) is removed if it’s inflamed or has grown too much. Arthrodesis, Pins or plates can permanently fuse bones together. Joint replacement. Your doctor replaces a damaged joint with an artificial one made of metal, plastic, or ceramic.

The things you eat and drink can also play a role in inflammation. For an anti-inflammatory diet, include foods like:

Tomatoes Olive oilLeafy green vegetables (spinach, collards)Nuts (almonds, walnuts)Fatty fish ( salmon, tuna, sardines)Fruits (berries, oranges )

These things can trigger inflammation, so avoid them as much as you can:

Refined carbohydrates (white bread )Fried foods (French fries)Sugary drinks (soda)Red and processed meats (beef, hot dogs)Margarine, shortening, and lard

What cells cause inflammation?

Introduction – Inflammation is part of the innate defense mechanism of the body against infectious or non-infectious etiologies. This mechanism is non-specific and immediate. There are five fundamental signs of inflammation that include: heat (calor), redness (rubor), swelling (tumor), pain (dolor), and loss of function (functio laesa).

Inflammation can divide into three types based on the time of the process that responds to the injurious cause; acute which occurs immediately after injury and lasts for few days, chronic inflammation that may last for months or even years when acute inflammation fails to settle, and subacute which is a transformational period from acute to chronic which lasts from 2 to 6 weeks.

Acute inflammation starts after a specific injury that will cause soluble mediators like cytokines, acute phase proteins, and chemokines to promote the migration of neutrophils and macrophages to the area of inflammation. These cells are part of natural innate immunity that can take an active role in acute inflammation.

If this inflammation does not resolve after six weeks, this will cause the acute inflammation to develop from subacute to the chronic form of inflammation with the migration of T lymphocytes and plasma cells to the site of inflammation. If this persists with no recovery, then tissue damage and fibrosis will ensue.

Other varieties of cells, such as macrophages and monocytes, play a role in both acute and chronic inflammation. In this article, we will discuss “acute inflammation.”

What is the healing and repair of inflammation?

Introduction – Wound healing is a complex process involving soluble mediators, blood cells, extracellular matrix, and parenchymal cells ( Singer and Clark, 1999 ; Bullers et al., 2012 ; Pesce et al., 2013 ). The process from inflammation to the wound healing is divided into three phases: (1) inflammation process, (2) tissue formation, and (3) tissue remodeling (Figure 1 ; Eming et al., 2007 ).

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The inflammatory phase is marked by platelet accumulation, coagulation, and leukocyte migration. The tissue formation is characterized by re-epithelialization, angiogenesis, fibroplasia, and wound contraction. Finally, the remodeling phase takes place over a period of months, during which the dermis responds to injury with the production of collagen and matrix proteins and then returns to its pre-injury phenotype ( Kirsner and Eaglstein, 1993 ; Castillo-Briceno et al., 2011 ; Bainbridge, 2013 ).

The normal healing response begins the moment the tissue is injured. Peripheral blood components filtrated into the site of injury, the platelets contact with exposed collagen and other elements of the extracellular matrix through the process from inflammation to wound healing ( Diegelmann and Evans, 2004 ).

This contact triggers the platelets to release clotting factors as well as essential growth factors and cytokines such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), such as stimulation of DNA synthesis and chemotaxis of fibroblasts moreover smooth muscle cells to induce the production of collagen, glycosaminoglycan, and collagenase by fibroblasts through the wound healing process ( Lynch et al., 1987 ; Price et al., 2004 ; Tettamanti et al., 2004 ).

Furthermore, PDGF appears to transduce its signal through wound macrophages and may trigger the activation of feedback loops and synthesis of endogenous wound PDGF and other growth factors, thereby enhancing the cascade of tissue repair processes required for a fully healed wound ( Pierce et al., 1991 ).

In a normal response to injury, platelet aggregation and degranulation of the earliest events in an inflammatory response trigger the release of numerous inflammatory mediators including transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) from the granules ( Wahl et al., 1989 ; Tatler and Jenkins, 2012 ; Christmann et al., 2013 ).

TGF-β is implicated in pathogenic fibrotic conditions in kidney, liver, and lung disease, and in scarring of skin wounds as well ( Martin, 1997 ; Sgonc and Gruber, 2013 ). Accumulating evidence indicates that TGF-β affects integrin-mediated cell adhesion and migration by regulating the expression of integrins, their ligands and integrin-associated proteins ( Margadant and Sonnenberg, 2010 ). FIGURE 1. The process from inflammation to the wound healing is divided into three phases: (1) Inflammation process, (2) tissue formation, and (3) tissue remodeling. The important question, “what is the key linkage between the tissue formation and inflammation?”

What is the most common inflammation?

Acute and chronic – There are two types of inflammation: acute and chronic. People are most familiar with acute inflammation. This is the redness, warmth, swelling, and pain around tissues and joints that occurs in response to an injury, like when you cut yourself.

  • When the body is injured, your immune system releases white blood cells to surround and protect the area.
  • Acute inflammation is how your body fights infections and helps speed up the healing process,” says Dr.
  • Shmerling.
  • In this way, inflammation is good because it protects the body.” This process works the same if you have a virus like a cold or the flu.

In contrast, when inflammation gets turned up too high and lingers for a long time, and the immune system continues to pump out white blood cells and chemical messengers that prolong the process, that’s known as chronic inflammation. “From the body’s perspective, it’s under consistent attack, so the immune system keeps fighting indefinitely,” says Dr.

Shmerling. When this happens, white blood cells may end up attacking nearby healthy tissues and organs. For example, if you are overweight and have more visceral fat cells — the deep type of fat that surrounds your organs — the immune system may see those cells as a threat and attack them with white blood cells.

The longer you are overweight, the longer your body can remain in a state of inflammation. Research has shown that chronic inflammation is associated with heart disease, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, and bowel diseases like Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

Are there 4 classic signs of inflammation?

What are the five classic signs of inflammation? – Classic (cardinal) signs of inflammation include pain, redness on the skin, heat, swelling, and stiffness. Inflammation, in the short term, helps tackle infections and encourages the regeneration of muscle after an injury. However, if it persists long term, it can be linked with problems such as arthritis.