Journal Of Inflammation Research


Journal Of Inflammation Research

Is the Journal of Inflammation Research legitimate?

The Journal of Inflammation Research is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on inflammation. The journal was established in 2008 and is published by Dove Medical Press.

What is the impact factor of Journal of Inflammation Research?

Important Metrics

Title Journal of Inflammation Research
Overall Rank/Ranking 5080
SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 0.889
Impact Score 4.49
Publisher Dove Medical Press Ltd.

What is the acceptance rate of Journal of Inflammation Research?

ISSN: 1178-7031 – Usage:

82,776 Monthly downloads/views

Speed/ acceptance:

40 days average from submission to first editorial decision 11 days average from editorial acceptance to publication 18 % acceptance rate

Citation metrics: This journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

4.5 Impact Factor * 4.9 5 year Impact Factor 3.5 CiteScore 1.55 Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 1.088 Scimago Journal & Country Rank (SJR)PubMed and PubMed Central ( J Inflamm Res ) Scopus, from 2010 (Correct as at December 8, 2016 )Embase, from 2010 (Correct as at December 8, 2016 ) Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) The Open Access Initiative (OAIster)


Journal Citation Reports/Science EditionScience Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch®)Current Contents®/Life Sciences

For more details, please read our journal metrics summary,

What journal is related to Inflammation?

Aims and Scope – The Journal of Inflammation Research is an international, peer-reviewed, open access journal that welcomes laboratory and clinical findings on the molecular basis, cell biology and pharmacology of inflammation. Meta-analyses will no longer be considered for publication. Specific topics covered by the journal include:

acute/chronic inflammation mediators of inflammation cellular processes molecular mechanisms neuroimmune mechanisms pharmacology and novel anti-inflammatory drugs clinical conditions involving inflammation

The journal welcomes original research manuscripts, reviews, symposium reports, hypothesis formation, expert opinions and commentaries relating to all aspects of inflammation. The journal does not consider case reports except in circumstances where they make a valuable contribution to the literature.

  1. Protocols of prospective studies need to be accompanied by detailed and original video demonstrations of the proposed research.
  2. When considering submission of a paper utilizing publicly-available data (e.g.
  3. SEER/GWAS/TCGA/GEO/Vigibase etc.), authors should ensure that such studies add significantly to the body of knowledge about a specific disease or relevant phenotype and that they are validated using the authors’ own data through replication in an independent sample set and functional follow-up.

Bioinformatics studies should also conform to these criteria.

Is Ijsr a predatory journal?

According to the Beall’s list, International Journal of Scientific Research?(IJSR) is a predatory journal. The title of the journal is included in the archived version of the Beall’s list – a list of potential predatory journals. Predatory Journals take advantage of authors by asking them to publish for a fee without providing peer-review or editing services.

  1. We recommend that scholars/ researchers read the available reviews, assessments and descriptions of the journal from their end, and then decide for themselves whether they want to submit articles, serve as editors or on editorial boards.
  2. Note for the journal publisher : If you think, the International Journal of Scientific Research?(IJSR) is marked as a predatory journal by mistake.

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What journals are trustworthy?

With so many journals to choose from, you need to be confident that the journal you submit to is a reputable journal in the field. How can you do this? There are lists available online that can help you determine which journals are reputable (e.g., those from DOAJ or Scholarly Open Access), but learning how to carefully evaluate each journal yourself is the best way to ensure that the journal you choose is the best one for your manuscript.

Publisher, Who is the publisher of the journal? If they are an established and reputable publishing house (e.g., Springer, Wiley, Elsevier, Nature Publishing Group, etc.), you can feel more confident that the journal is a reputable journal as well. Peer review. Reputable journals use peer review in selecting manuscripts for publication. Editorial board, Most reputable journals have an international editorial board. Review the names of the editorial board and determine if they are from established universities worldwide. You should also be able to recognize names on this list as well, as most editorial board members are established researchers in the field. Indexing, For your published article to be discoverable, the journal should be indexed in familiar online databases (e.g., PubMed, Science Citation Index, SCOPUS, etc.). Consistency, Reputable journals publish consistent content at consistent intervals (i.e., weekly, monthly, etc.). You should review the table of contents from recently published issues and ensure the journal is consistent in their publications.

Fraudulent impact factors, To appear reputable, predatory journals will often list impact factors on their website that are not from Thompson Reuters (the only real ” impact factor “). Examples include “Global Impact Factor” or “Universal Impact Factor”. Poorly indexed, Because these journals cannot be indexed by commonly used indexes, they may list a range of obscure indexes to try appear credible. If you have not heard of any of these indexes, chances are that your target audience has not either! Submission charges, Although a few reputable journals do have submission charges (e.g., The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery), most do not. These fees will often promise faster review of your manuscript. This will often be a first flag that you need to more carefully evaluate the journal. For open access journals, you should not have to pay any fee until after your manuscript has been accepted.

The Edanz Journal Selector is free and easy to use. Use it to start your search for a reputable journal. Here’s how it works: If you’d like some customized expert guidance, our Journal Selection service will assign a research consultant to give you a customized list.

What is a reliable journal impact factor?

What Is a Good Impact factor of a Journal? Any researcher looking to publish an article gets tangled in the web of journal impact factor and how to select the best journal to target. While it is easy to know the impact factor of a journal, it is altogether a different challenge as to how to interpret this number.

Here is an easy guide to journal impact factor and what it means. What is the impact factor of a journal ? This is the easiest question to answer! The Journal impact factor is a measured frequency-based on citation numbers of article s from a journal in a particular year. First introduced by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information, the simple formula is Impact factor =A/B for any given year (X), where A is the number of citation of articles published in years (X-1 & X-2) by indexed journal s during Year X; and B is the total number of citable items like article s and reviews published by that journal in the years (X-1 & X-2).

Impact factor s are calculated each year by Thomson Scientific for those journal s that it indexes (it was 12,298 for 2017) and are published in JournalCitation Reports. So, what are the caveats?

Remember, the impact factor is always dated back 3 years; one cannot know the impact factor of the present year as it will come after 2 years. Impact factor analysis is limited to the 12,298 journal s indexed for the JournalCitation Reports covering 27 research disciplines only. Impact factor can be calculated only after completing the minimum of 3 years of publication and therefore it cannot be calculated for a brand new journal The impact factor only denotes citation of journal s and not individual articles That is done by other measures like the H-index.

How do we interpret the value of a journal’s impact factor ? This is where things start getting tricky! In most fields, the impact factor of 10 or greater is considered an excellent score while 3 is flagged as good and the average score is less than 1.

However, the impact factor is best read in terms of subject matter in the form of the 27 research disciplines identified in the JournalCitation Reports. Some science streams have higher frequencies of citation while some subjects like streams in humanities may have a lower frequency of citation, The best means of judging a journal based on the impact factor is noting the comparative score of the journal with others in the same field.

So, if a journal A has a score of (say) 5 while the next journal B has a score of 2, that is different from a journal C having a score of 10 while the next journal D has a score of 9. It is the relative score that matters while choosing a journal for publication.

What is a high H index?

What is a Good h-Index? – Hirsch reckons that after 20 years of research, an h-index of 20 is good, 40 is outstanding, and 60 is truly exceptional. In his paper, Hirsch shows that successful scientists do, indeed, have high h-indices: 84% of Nobel prize winners in physics, for example, had an h-index of at least 30.

What is the rejection rate of MDPI journals?

MDPI Journals: 2015 -2021 (For a PDF version of this blog and the data used to produce it please go to the end of this blog) In this blog I report on growth of MDPI journals and papers from 2015-2021. It updates previous blogs on the same topic (the most recent is ) that looked at growth up to 2020.

  1. The issues which make MDPI’s work interesting are now well discussed those blogs, and in Paolo Crosetto’s,
  2. I have therefore not provided a detailed commentary on the most recent findings, rather I wish briefly to highlight two developments that are clear in the 2021 data.
  3. These are that growth continues and that low rejection rates are lower than they were previously.

The methods I have used to compile these data are described at the end of this document. The data I have used are also available there. The data available consist of 206 of MDPI’s 378 journals, producing over 233,000 publications in 2021, which is a substantial majority of the 235,600 peer-reviewed papers published in that year.

However data on submissions and acceptance rates are no longer available on the MDPI journals website (as of June 2022). It will therefore not be possible to provide further updates.1. Growth By every measure MDPI’s growth continues to be remarkable. The rate of revenue increase has slowed in the last two years, to just over 50%, but even that remains extraordinary.

Note that the proportion of submissions that are published has increased, from around 44% two years ago to over 55% currently (Table 1; Figure 1). Figure 1 Growth continues in other ways too. In 2021 MDPI launched 84 new journals (!) and acquired two more existing journal titles. There were 378 listed titles in June 2022. There is also growth in formal recognition, with 85 journals now listed with Impact Factors in the Web of Science, up from 80 in the previous year.2.

  • Rejection Rates Are Lower The growth in publications is partly sustained by lower rejection rates.
  • The journals with the lowest rejection rates used to count for only a minority of publications and fees (Tables 2-4).
  • Now figures for 2021 show that journals with low rejection rates are producing a higher proportion of MDPI publications.

This fact is important because I have questioned claims that MDPI is a form of predatory or vanity publishing because the rejection rates of its journals were too high. Researchers were not simply paying for publication, because, in previous years, more material was rejected than was accepted.

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Now, some 45% of the MDPI journals I analysed, have rejection rates of below 40% (Table 2). Papers in these journals account for nearly 38% of revenues from publication fees (Table 3). Conversely, the journals with rejection rates of over 50% account for just over 25% of revenues. Measures of esteem, such as listing in the Web of Science, did not seem to make a difference to rejection rates.

Average rejection rate for WoS listed journals was 42.7%, and for unlisted journals 41.6%. The changing importance of low rejection rate journals for revenues is illustrated in Figure 2. These graphs show journals in rank order of their rejection rate (lowest first) and shows how revenues from publishing fees increase as each journal is added. It is important to put this shift in perspective. MDPI has always maintained that it will encourage publication of papers whose findings are true, regardless of their significance or scope. I discussed this issue in my on this topic (see point 4). Significance and scope are to be determined by the reading community after a paper is published, not by the reviewers and editors beforehand.

However the corollary of this approach, given the growth in publications, is that it is more likely that these journals are now publishing papers that will be deemed insignificant by the research community. It will become harder to find really good and important papers in all the volume of material generated.

This problem is compounded by the fast turn-around times of papers (a median of 38 days from submission to publication in 2021) because the speed increases the risk that mistakes are made in the review and revision process. MDPI itself has been aware of the dangers of being too inclusive.

In its 2015 annual report it noted that the overall rejection rate had increased since last year (from 52 to 54%). This achievement was listed in one of the key performance indicators as a sign of progress. MDPI’s shifting stance can be best seen in Figure 3. From 2015 through to 2019 the number of publications grew, generally keeping within a rejection rate range of 50-70%.

The average rejection rate, weighted by journal output, is shown by the green line. Indeed in 2019 more papers appeared in journals with rejection rates over 60% than previously. However from 2019 onwards the weighted average has declined (shown in the red line). Nevertheless, I would not conclude from these changes that MDPI is now a predatory press. I think it is rarely helpful to use categories of journals such as ‘predatory’ or ‘not predatory’ in the current publishing ecosystem. All major publishing houses profit from free researcher labour.

  • Some exploit individual academics and their research funds through charging licencing fees, others raise revenues from libraries and subscription charges, and others make deals with governments to cover entire University sectors.
  • Some combine all these methods.
  • In the process each publishing house presents a range of behaviours on dimensions such as transparency, profitability, exclusivity, giving back, citation and self-citation, respectability and so on.

MDPI is shifting within these dimensions; it has not changed category. Using categories to explain these dynamics will not help us understand the problems of academic publishing. We can predict that if this pattern is sustained it could affect MDPI’s brand and reputation.

  • This could happen if researchers find too many weak or insignificant papers in the journals they are consulting.
  • Or it could happen if it becomes widely known that a journal is relatively easy to publish in.
  • This would reduce the kudos of having a paper accepted.
  • However, because acceptance and rejection data are no longer available on the MDPI website, we will not know what is happening to rejection rates.

We cannot know, at the level of each journal, how inclusive they are, or are becoming. This points to a wider need for all publishing houses to be more transparent with the data of their journals to allow researchers to make informed choices about their journals.

Dan Brockington,Dar es Salaam,10 th November 2022. Methods

In June 2016 I copied data for submissions and publications for 206 journals that were available on the that began in or before 2015. At that time MDPI made publication data available for four previous years, and only when four years of data were available.

  • Data I used in my analysis are available,
  • Average net APC are based on figures provided by MDPI that have been put in the public domain.
  • They are lower than APC charged because they are net of all waivers exercised.
  • None of the figures presented above account for the effects of inflation.
  • A PDF of this blog is available,

This entry was posted in, Bookmark the, : MDPI Journals: 2015 -2021

Is PNAS a good journal?

With a competitive impact factor of 9.6 and a 19% acceptance rate for papers submitted directly, PNAS remains one of the most prestigious and highly cited multidisciplinary research journals.

What are the 4 pillars of inflammation?

May Inflammation Be With You! Inflammation is a protective reaction of the body against injury or infection, in which the affected area becomes swollen, hot, red, and painful. In the past, it was believed that this reaction was dangerous and that anti-inflammatory medicines were necessary.

  1. However, we now recognize inflammation as a protective and necessary response of our internal defense system, and we know that it may not always be good to block it.
  2. Recently, scientists have discovered a new component of the inflammatory reaction, called the “pro-resolving” program, which stimulates wound healing and repair of the damaged tissue or organ.

By studying this pro-resolving program, scientists are developing a brand new class of medicines to use when we suffer from inflammation, which will make our bodies heal faster. Although they are still experimental, many scientists around the world believe that these will become the medicines of the future.

  • The word inflammation comes from the Latin word inflammare (meaning “to set on fire”).
  • The Roman writer Aulus Cornelius Celsus, who lived in the 1 st century AD, was the first to describe the process called,
  • Inflammation is the reaction of the body against injury or infection,
  • For example, during a toothache, or sore throat, or when you hit your head on a door or badly stub your pinky toe, what your body experiences is called an inflammatory reaction.

The affected area turns red, it gets hot, it swells up, and it hurts. These are the four major characteristics of inflammation described by Celsus almost 2,000 years ago, which is known as The Pillars of Inflammation: rubor (redness), calor (warmth) tumor (swelling), and dolor (pain) ().

Redness occurs because the capillaries (small blood vessels) in the affected tissue enlarge and bring in more blood than usual. This increase in blood flow is also responsible for the sensation of heat. Swelling happens because the tissues fill with liquid that comes out of the enlarged blood vessels.

The pain sensation is caused by chemicals that stimulate the nerves endings in that area.

Figure 1 – The pillars of inflammation. The four major characteristics of inflammation were described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus more than 2,000 years ago and include redness (caused by dilation of small blood vessels), swelling (caused by the accumulation of fluid outside the blood vessels), pain (caused by chemical substances such as prostaglandins), and heat (resulting from increased blood flow).

What are the 5 pillars of inflammation?

Introduction – Based on visual observation, the ancients characterised inflammation by five cardinal signs, namely redness ( rubor ), swelling ( tumour ), heat ( calor ; only applicable to the body’ extremities), pain ( dolor ) and loss of function ( functio laesa ).

The first four of these signs were named by Celsus in ancient Rome (30–38 B.C.) and the last by Galen (A.D 130–200), More recently, inflammation was described as “the succession of changes which occurs in a living tissue when it is injured provided that the injury is not of such a degree as to at once destroy its structure and vitality”, or “the reaction to injury of the living microcirculation and related tissues,

Although, in ancient times inflammation was recognised as being part of the healing process, up to the end of the 19 th century, inflammation was viewed as being an undesirable response that was harmful to the host. However, beginning with the work of Metchnikoff and others in the 19 th century, the contribution of inflammation to the body’s defensive and healing process was recognised,

Furthermore, inflammation is considered the cornerstone of pathology in that the changes observed are indicative of injury and disease. The classical description of inflammation accounts for the visual changes seen. Thus, the sensation of heat is caused by the increased movement of blood through dilated vessels into the environmentally cooled extremities, also resulting on the increased redness (due to the additional number of erythrocytes passing through the area).

The swelling (oedema) is the result of increased passage of fluid from dilated and permeable blood vessels into the surrounding tissues, infiltration of cells into the damaged area, and in prolonged inflammatory responses deposition of connective tissue.

Pain is due to the direct effects of mediators, either from initial damage or that resulting from the inflammatory response itself, and the stretching of sensory nerves due to oedema. The loss of function refers to either simple loss of mobility in a joint, due to the oedema and pain, or to the replacement of functional cells with scar tissue.

Today it is recognised that inflammation is far more complex than might first appear from the simple description given above and is a major response of the immune system to tissue damage and infection, although not all infection gives rise to inflammation.

Inflammation is also diverse, ranging from the acute inflammation associated with S. aureus infection of the skin (the humble boil), through to chronic inflammatory processes resulting in remodeling of the artery wall in atherosclerosis; the bronchial wall in asthma and chronic bronchitis, and the debilitating destruction of the joints associated with rheumatoid arthritis.

These processes involve the major cells of the immune system, including neutrophils, basophils, mast cells, T-cells, B-cells, etc. However, examination of a range of inflammatory lesions demonstrates the presence of specific leukocytes in any given lesion.

  • That is, the inflammatory process is regulated in such a way as to ensure the appropriate leukocytes are recruited.
  • These events are controlled by a host of extracellular mediators and regulators, including cytokines, growth factors, eicosanoids (prostaglandins, leukotrines, etc), complement and peptides.

In fact, it is the discovery of many of these mediators over the past 20 years that has increased our understanding of the regulation of the inflammatory process whilst, at the same time, revealing its complexity. These extracellular events are matched by equally complex intracellular signalling control mechanisms, with the ability of cells to assemble and disassemble an almost bewildering array of signalling pathways as they move from inactive to dedicated roles within the inflammatory response and site.

Which cells and mediators come into play depends on wide range of factors. These include: what stage the process of inflation is at; the initiating event, i.e. type of pathogen, auto-immune, chemical or physical injury, etc.; the tissue or organ involved; whether the inflammation is of an acute, resolving form or chronic, non resolving or long-lasting type; whether formation of granuloma is involved, or whether scarring results.

The role of inflammation as a healing, restorative process, as well as its aggressive role, is also more widely recognised today. Inflammation is now considered as the full circle of events, from initiation of a response, through the development of the cardinal signs above, to healing and restoration of normal appearance and function of the tissue or organ.

  1. However, in certain conditions there appears to be no resolution and a chronic state of inflammation develops that may last the life of the individual.
  2. Such conditions include the inflammatory disorders rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, retinitis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and atherosclerosis.
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In order to study inflammation a multidisciplinary approach is necessary. Classically, it has required the study of the immune system, in order to understand the events involved in initiating and maintaining inflammatory conditions. Today it is recognised that the underlying genetics and molecular biology basis to cellular responses are also important in order to identify genetic predisposition to inflammatory diseases, while pharmacological studies are necessary to identify targets and develop novel treatments to bring relief from chronic life-threatening inflammatory conditions.

Thus research into inflammation includes not only the study of immunological and cellular responses involved but also the pharmacological process involved in drug development. Many of the drugs used in the treatment of inflammatory conditions, predate our current understanding of the biochemical processes involved in the disease.

Traditionally, the standard treatments for rheumatoid arthritis has been to use a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), such as aspirin, for pain relief and to use corticosteroids or even disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in an attempt to reduce other symptoms of the disease.

  • For many years the pharmaceutical industry attempted to develop NSAIDs which shared the therapeutic action of aspirin but which did not cause the main adverse event, namely gastric ulceration.
  • This research led to the development of indomethacin, the fenamates, ibuprofen and many others.
  • However, while all these drugs had clinical utility they also eroded the gastric mucosa.

In addition, this research also led to the development of some of the animal models still used in arthritis research today, such as carrageenin oedema and adjuvant arthritis ). The development of NSAIDs, with reduced potential to cause gastric ulcers, was finally realised with the demonstration that clinically useful NSAIDs inhibited the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase, which was also present in the gastric mucosa.

The finding that cyclo-oxygenase present in inflammatory lesions (COX2) was distinct from that found in the stomach (COX1) led to the development of selective COX2 inhibitors, such as celecoxib. These drugs provide relief from many of the symptoms of arthritis but have a reduced potential to cause gastric ulceration,

The differential responsiveness to these, and other, therapeutic agents and, indeed, the induction of the inflammatory response in some patients with asthma by aspirin, has led to the concept of pharmacogenomics to understand individual drug sensitivities with a view to producing therapy tailored to the individual.

  1. Similarly, glucocorticoids are widely used in the treatment of inflammation.
  2. Unlike the NSAIDs these agents do not relieve pain but reduce inflammation by inhibiting leukocyte function.
  3. The active ingredient responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of adrenal cortex extracts was discovered in the 1940s.

This led to the use of cortisol as an anti-inflammatory and the development of potent synthetic agents typified by dexamethasone. However, because cortisol, and synthetic glucocorticoids, produce their therapeutic action at supra-physiological concentrations, adverse effects, such as suppression of the HPA-axis and Cushingoid changes are inevitable.

Many of these adverse effects can be avoided by giving glucocorticoids topically. This has led to the development of inhaled glucocorticoids for the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract and steroid containing creams for the treatment of skin inflammation. However, applying this approach to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis necessitates the use of intra-articular injection.

Thus, there is a clear unmet medical need for a drug that provides relief from the symptoms of inflammation but can be given systemically. The fact that a large number of patients with severe chronic inflammatory disease fail to respond to conventional systemic or topical therapy resulting in a huge clinical and socio-economic burdon underlies the need to develop novel therapies.

Thus, modern research has used molecular techniques to identify which genes are regulated by glucocorticoid receptors in an attempt to identify novel therapeutic targets. This work has attempted to fine tune the immune system through use of agents that inhibit specific pathways and mediators rather than to suppress immune cell activity.

Examples of such approaches include the development of anti-TNFa therapies, anti adhesion molecule therapies and inhibitors of cytokines believed to be pivotal in a given pathology, Furthermore, inhibitors of selective pro-inflammatory intracellular signalling pathways are currently in use e.g.

  1. Cyclsporin or under development e.g.
  2. NF-κB, p38 MAPK and PDE4 inhibitors,
  3. As we understand more about the complexity of the inflammatory response and the actions of the currently available drugs the value of particular clusters of targets becomes apparent.
  4. However, the success of anti-TNFα therapy in RA underlines the importance of understanding/discovering the initial driver(s) of the inflammatory response in individual diseases and patients.

While research into inflammation has resulted in great progress in the latter half of the 20th century, we recognise that the rate of progress is accelerating. Furthermore, it is our perception that there is a need for a vehicle through which this very diverse research can readily be made available to the scientific community.

What are the 4 major events of inflammation?

Inflammation | Definition, Symptoms, Treatment, & Facts Inflammation is a response triggered by damage to living, The inflammatory response is a defense mechanism that evolved in higher organisms to protect them from infection and, Its purpose is to localize and eliminate the injurious agent and to remove damaged tissue components so that the body can begin to heal.

  1. The response consists of changes in blood flow, an increase in permeability of blood vessels, and the migration of fluid, proteins, and white blood cells () from the circulation to the site of tissue damage.
  2. An inflammatory response that lasts only a few days is called acute inflammation, while a response of longer duration is referred to as chronic inflammation.

The four cardinal signs of inflammation are redness (Latin rubor ), heat ( calor ), swelling ( tumor ), and pain ( dolor ).

Redness is caused by the dilation of small blood vessels in the area of injury.Heat results from increased blood flow through the area and is experienced only in peripheral parts of the body such as the skin. is brought about by chemical mediators of inflammation and contributes to the rise in temperature at the injury.Swelling, called, is caused primarily by the accumulation of fluid outside the blood vessels.The pain associated with inflammation results in part from the distortion of tissues caused by edema, and it also is induced by certain chemical mediators of inflammation, such as bradykinin,, and the,

Inflammation serves as a defense mechanism against infection and injury, and localizing and eliminating injurious factors and removing damaged components allows the healing process to begin. During the healing process, damaged cells capable of proliferation regenerate.

Tissue repair, resulting in formation, may occur when normal tissue architecture cannot be regenerated successfully. Failure to replicate the original framework of an organ can lead to disease. Acute inflammation is usually beneficial but often causes unpleasant sensations, such as pain or itching. In some instances inflammation can cause harm.

Tissue destruction can occur when the regulatory mechanisms of the inflammatory response are defective or the ability to clear damaged tissue and foreign substances is impaired. In other cases an inappropriate immune response may give rise to a prolonged and damaging inflammatory response.

In reactions, the body’s immune system attacks its own tissues, leading to long-term chronic inflammation. inflammation, a response triggered by damage to living, The inflammatory response is a that evolved in higher organisms to protect them from and, Its purpose is to localize and eliminate the injurious agent and to remove damaged tissue components so that the body can begin to heal.

The response consists of changes in flow, an increase in permeability of, and the migration of fluid,, and (leukocytes) from the to the site of tissue damage. An inflammatory response that lasts only a few days is called inflammation, while a response of longer duration is referred to as chronic inflammation.

  • Although acute inflammation is usually, it often causes unpleasant sensations, such as the of a or the of an,
  • Discomfort is usually temporary and disappears when the inflammatory response has done its job.
  • But in some instances inflammation can cause harm.
  • Tissue destruction can occur when the regulatory mechanisms of the inflammatory response are defective or the ability to clear damaged tissue and foreign substances is impaired.

In other cases an inappropriate immune response may give rise to a prolonged and damaging inflammatory response. Examples include, or, reactions, in which an environmental agent such as, which normally poses no threat to the individual, inflammation, and, in which chronic inflammation is triggered by the body’s immune response against its own tissues.

The factors that can stimulate inflammation include microorganisms, physical agents, chemicals, inappropriate immunological responses, and tissue death. Infectious agents such as and are some of the most common stimuli of inflammation. Viruses give rise to inflammation by entering and destroying cells of the body; bacteria release substances called that can initiate inflammation.

Physical trauma,,, and can damage tissues and also bring about inflammation, as can corrosive chemicals such as acids, alkalis, and oxidizing agents. As mentioned above, malfunctioning immunological responses can incite an inappropriate and damaging inflammatory response.

Inflammation can also result when tissues die from a lack of oxygen or nutrients, a situation that often is caused by loss of blood flow to the area. The four cardinal signs of inflammation—redness (Latin rubor ), ( calor ), swelling ( tumor ), and pain ( dolor )—were described in the 1st century ad by the Roman medical writer,

Redness is caused by the dilation of small blood vessels in the area of injury. Heat results from increased blood flow through the area and is experienced only in parts of the body such as the skin. Fever is brought about by chemical mediators of inflammation and contributes to the rise in temperature at the injury.

  • Swelling, called, is caused primarily by the accumulation of fluid outside the blood vessels.
  • The pain associated with inflammation results in part from the distortion of tissues caused by edema, and it also is induced by certain chemical mediators of inflammation, such as bradykinin,, and the,
  • A fifth consequence of inflammation is the loss of function of the inflamed area, a feature noted by German pathologist in the 19th century.

Loss of function may result from pain that mobility or from severe swelling that prevents movement in the area. When tissue is first injured, the small blood vessels in the damaged area constrict momentarily, a process called vasoconstriction. Following this event, which is believed to be of little importance to the inflammatory response, the blood vessels dilate ( ), increasing blood flow into the area.

Vasodilation may last from 15 minutes to several hours. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Next, the walls of the blood vessels, which normally allow only water and salts to pass through easily, become more permeable. Protein-rich fluid, called exudate, is now able to exit into the tissues.

Substances in the exudate include factors, which help prevent the spread of infectious agents throughout the body. Other proteins include antibodies that help destroy invading microorganisms. As fluid and other substances leak out of the blood, blood flow becomes more sluggish and begin to fall out of the axial stream in the centre of the vessel to flow nearer the vessel wall.

Is it okay to publish in a predatory journal?

Predatory Journal Lists Predatory publishers use questionable tactics to profit from scholarly research. They exploit faculty and students by soliciting articles (often through spam emails) and usually request payment for publishing in advance. And, of course, the quality of the journals is sub par.

Is Ijsr an impact factor?

Conclusion – International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) is an authentic journal where you can publish your research if:

You want to publish quickly within a month (It has high acceptance rate) You do not care much about publishing in highly reputable journals. If your research is good, it will prove itself.

Continue doing research and if you want to publish your research, choose the journal wisely. IJSR is a potential option for you. : International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

Is it good to publish in predatory journals?

In this day and age of publish or perish, there is a temptation to publish your journal articles wherever you can, on the assumption that quantity is better than quality. There has always been an argument over quality versus quantity (we believe that you should always go for quality), but the problem now goes deeper than that.

  • With the introduction of predatory journals, there is discussion whether scholars should submit to these journals, in the expectation that it will add enhance their CV as it will increase the number of publications they have authored.
  • You should NEVER submit to a predatory journal but if you want more convincing, some of the reasons are highlighted below.
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Moreover, publishing in predatory journals it will harm your CV. If you are interested in how best to develop your academic CV, you might want to take a look at ” The Professor Is In: The Essential Guide To Turning Your Ph.D. Into a Job ” which gives advice on presenting your CV and also has a chapter entitled ” Write this, not that ” which gives advice on the type of papers you should be writing. There is also some discussion whether authors actually choose to publish in predatory journals. In the paper ” Knowledge and motivations of researchers publishing in presumed predatory journals: a survey ” there are a couple of interesting quotes:

” Only 10% of respondents reported being aware that their relevant article was published in a predatory journal; however, more than 70% were not willing to answer this question. “” In addition to professors feeling pressure to publish, many reported submitting to presumed predatory journals to help students publish. “” In the online survey of researchers from India, an institutional requirement of between one and three publications as a criterion for their PhD defence was reported by 90% of the respondents. What is troubling here is that students may model their professor’s behaviour and actively engage in submitting to predatory journals as a goal from the inception of their career. “

In the remainder of this article, we look at some areas that you may want to consider, which will impact your CV, which could damage your reputation. Many scholars will want to exhibit a high number of publications so that when they apply for promotion their CV has some bulk and has the number of publications that would be expected for the level that you are applying for.

  1. If the promotion panel is doing its job correctly it will not be fooled by a list of predatory publications.
  2. One or two might slip through the net but too many will raise alarm bells.
  3. Even if the panel does not recognize a particular journal as predatory, others working in the discipline will start to question where you are publishing as they will not recognise the journals as those that they might expect to see on a high-quality CV.

It is usual to go out to external referees for some academic promotions so even if your CV manages to get past the internal promotions panel, external referees may pick up on that fact that you are publishing in predatory journals. This not only reflects poorly on you, but also questions the procedures that are in place at your institution, and they may not want this to be exposed to external stakeholders.

Most of the comments that we have made above for promotion equally apply to job applications, as both panels largely are looking at the same criteria. There are additional complexities around job applications. You are certainly exposing yourself, and your current employer, to external scrutiny – whether that is a recruitment agency, another institution or reviewers – which may not be something you want to do.

It is almost certainly something that your current institution would not want to open itself up to. You also need to consider what happens if you get the position. You have to ask whether the institution has the funds to keep paying for you to publish in predatory journals. You could phrase this at interview by asking about their policy on Open Access (if you are not familiar with the Open Access model of publishing there is plenty of help of the internet, as well as books such as ” Open Access (MIT Press Essential Knowledge series) ” by Peter Suber.

  • A link to Amazon for this book is here ).
  • But that does not answer the question about how they decide which open access journals to invest in.
  • You can ask this, but you need to be careful how far you delve, as it may start alarm bells ringing.
  • If you manage to navigate your way through the interview and get offered, and accept, the position you will be faced with the difficult decision where you now publish? If you continue as you have done, and are happy about publishing in predatory journals, your CV will continue to suffer for all the reasons given in this article.

If you are stopped from publishing in predatory journals, as your new employer has more robust procedures, or you decide to refrain from this practice then you have to ask yourself ” Are you good enough to publish in the mainstream scientific literature, rather than rely on predatory publishers? ” You might struggle to answer that question truthfully. Whilst this might seem to be a good reason to publish in a predatory journal, we think there is more work to do on comparing the number of citations to articles in the mainstream scientific literature versus the citations received by those articles published in predatory journals.

  1. We suspect that there will be quite a difference, but there is research needed in this area.
  2. One of our other articles looked at the impact that a (possible) predatory journal was having.
  3. If you look at the ” Journal Impact ” section you’ll see that the citations that the journal has received are self-citations, and not very many.

But what you should be worried about is the word contaminating, As a scholar you have a duty to carry out good research that has been peer reviewed so that when others cite that paper, they do so in the knowledge that it has been validated by experts in the discipline.

If that peer review is missing, so that you can essentially publish anything, then the scientific archive loses its meaning and if this continues, it becomes meaningless. As a scholar, your professionalism should stop you allowing the scientific archive to be contaminated with citations to articles in predatory journals.

Perhaps, even more important, if you are publishing in predatory journals, your peers may take the view that you are contaminating the scientific literature. We would certainly have that view and if we saw that your CV was peppered with articles from predatory journals we would start to question your integrity as a researcher.

As a scholar, your legacy will be your publications and you want your papers to be published in high quality journals. If you publish in predatory journals you are unlikely to get recognition by your peers and you may even damage your reputation. The papers you publish in predatory journals are unlikely to be cited, which will affect the impact of your research and, if you care about such things, it will stop metrics such as your h-index growing as fast as it could.

Perhaps the most worrying aspect is the lack of peer review, with all that entails. The fact that many (most? all?) predatory journals do not have the same peer review standards as more reputable journals means that the work has no place in the scientific archive.

More worrying, due to the lack of peer review, it means that anybody can publish anything, and have it published in a scientific journal. Others, not being aware that the paper has not really been peer reviewed may take the paper as being validated by experts in the area. This can lead to the peer review process being undermined and, even worse, could lead to a real negative impact on real lives, especially when these come from the predatory medical journals.

A final concern is that some scholars, Professors included, appear to believe that publishing in predatory journals is acceptable. Just to make our position totally clear, our view is that you should NEVER submit to a predatory journal. It will harm your CV.

What are top 5 journals?

What Are the Top Journals? Last updated on February 13, 2021 A question from a graduate student: Based on our conversation about my interests, what are the most important ones (5? perhaps more?) that I should be paying attention to? If there is some blog post you could point me to about the taxonomy of the field, I would be appreciative.

  • I have heard the term “top 5 journals” thrown around a lot but I couldn’t tell you which ones they were, moreover I’m not sure if general top 5 econ = top 5 development.
  • My answer, edited for clarity and grammar: Good question! Traditionally the top five journals in economics are: the American Economic Review, Econometrica, the Quarterly Journal of Economics, the Journal of Political Economy, and the Review of Economic Studies,

I say “traditionally,” because there are now seven or eight “top-five” journals. Taking the five I mentioned, you can add the Review of Economics and Statistics, the American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, and the Economic Journal, and maybe even the new the American Economic Review: Insights and the Journal of the European Economic Association,

  • In development economics, the top journals are the Journal of Development Economics, Economic Development and Cultural Change, World Development, the World Bank Economic Review, and the Journal of Development Studies,
  • In agricultural economics, the American Journal of Agricultural Economics is top (historically, if not by impact factor) along with Food Policy, Agricultural Economics, Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, and maybe the European Review of Agricultural Economics,

It’s hard to subscribe to just five table-of-contents emails, to be honest. Five is what you’d get in a field, but most development folks are interested in one other field (agricultural economics in my case), and then you have to know what’s published in top general journals because they often publish things that are germane to your research interests.

  • I should also have added: Among the general sciences journals, which often publish stuff of relevance to agricultural, development, and environmental economists, the top three are Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, and Science,
  • Over the years, I’ve found that the best way to keep up (short of having a departmental librarian who emails you the tables of contents you are interested in every time those journals release a new issue, as is the case in our department), is via RSS feed.

Most journals have an RSS feed that you can subscribe to with a reader. I used to use Google Reader, but Google did away with it, and so now I use, which is free (and is also how I keep up with blogs). : What Are the Top Journals?

Is PLOS ONE a reputable journal?

Peer Review at PLOS ONE – PLOS ONE is a fully peer reviewed journal with a rigorous multi-stage editorial screening and assessment process. First, we undertake an initial in-house quality check to identify potential issues such as competing interest, compliance with ethical standards for studies involving human and animal subjects, financial disclosures, data availability, and other scientific and policy requirements.

Is JCDR a good journal?

‘Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine.

What is the most credible medical journal?

The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is recognized as the world’s leading medical journal and website. Published continuously for over 200 years, NEJM delivers high-quality, peer-reviewed research and interactive clinical content to physicians, educators, researchers, and the global medical community.

Is ISSN credible?

Having an ISSN does provide some credibility to your publication, even if that is unwarranted as ISSNs are relatively easy to get and are no measure of quality.