Latest News On Hiv Cure Vaccine

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Latest News On Hiv Cure Vaccine

Is there a current status for the HIV vaccine?

What Has Made HIV Vaccine Development Difficult? – The human immunodeficiency virus is unique in the way it will disguise itself to avoid being successfully targeted by antibodies.² HIV is able to integrate into a host genome. This means that when attempted vaccines have created targeted antibodies designed to induce T cells, those cells were not able to recognize HIV as a virus separate from the genome.

  1. As a result, the ways a vaccine can be created for HIV become significantly more limited.
  2. Though there are currently trials underway for HIV vaccines, several recently discontinued studies mean there are not currently any vaccines in late-stage trials.³ The most recent was Mosaico, Janssen’s large-scale HIV vaccine trial, which was in phase 3.

The trial had been ongoing since 2019 with a vaccine that had been given to 3,900 people. Though the vaccine was deemed safe, it was not shown effective enough to continue, and Janssen’s parent company Johnson & Johnson ended the trial in January. Recently, Janssen had a different HIV vaccine in the Imbokodo trial which made it to phase 2b.

  • This vaccine was tested on women in sub-Saharan Africa, and was similarly determined to be safe but ineffective.
  • Many recent vaccine trials have focused on broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), a class of rare antibodies with the potential to neutralize different HIV strains simultaneously.⁴ Though promising, using bnAbs has proven to be a difficult process; the B cell precursors that develop into B cells that produce bnAbs are rarely activated by the proteins that form a protection for HIV.

In addition, using antibody administration to prevent infection is a passive form of immunization compared to the active form that generally occurs as a result of vaccination.⁵ Many researchers hold out hope that bnAbs will help with an HIV vaccine, particularly as they develop ways to optimize the potency of antibodies and make them last longer.

Another technology researchers hope can provide advances in vaccine efficacy is messenger RNA (mRNA). In March 2022, the NIAID announced that they were launching a phase 1 trial of three HIV vaccines utilizing the same mRNA technology that had been used in certain approved COVID-19 vaccines.⁶ These vaccines deliver genetic material into the body to create a fragment of the target pathogen in hopes that the immune system can recognize it as a threat so that it can respond effectively if exposed to the actual virus.

Moderna and IAVI have also recently started an mRNA vaccine trial.³ Another ongoing HIV vaccine trial, this one from Vir Biotechnology, Inc., recently received a $10 million grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.⁷ Also funded in part by NIAID, this trial will determine the efficacy of Vir’s T cell vaccine and whether the T cells created are able to recognize different HIV epitopes.

Phase 1 of this trial is expected to begin later in 2023. Another potential vaccine from Scripps Research Institute will enter clinical trials soon.⁸ This vaccine would use protein nanoparticles to display Env, the surface protein of HIV, to present as HIV particles without causing infection. Env is covered in sugar molecules called glycans, but the nanoparticles of the vaccine shorten the glycan strands.

The world of HIV vaccine development is active but in transition; as potential vaccines in later phases of trials have been discontinued, newer ones are being tested and research continues in hopes of a new breakthrough.

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What is the latest vaccine for HIV?

Cross-posted from: NIH Director’s Blog Posted on June 6th, 2023 by Lawrence Tabak, D.D.S., Ph.D. Researchers used a customized nanoparticle (top left) to learn more about guiding the immune system to mount a desired robust response, the type needed for an effective HIV vaccine. Credit: Donny Bliss, NIH In recent years, we’ve witnessed some truly inspiring progress in vaccine development.

  • That includes the mRNA vaccines that were so critical during the COVID-19 pandemic, the first approved vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and a “universal flu vaccine” candidate that could one day help to thwart future outbreaks of more novel influenza viruses,
  • Inspiring progress also continues to be made toward a safe and effective vaccine for HIV, which still infects about 1.5 million people around the world each year,

A prime example is the recent first-in-human trial of an HIV vaccine made in the lab from a unique protein nanoparticle, a molecular construct measuring just a few billionths of a meter, The results of this early phase clinical study, published recently in the journal Science Translational Medicine and earlier in Science, showed that the experimental HIV nanoparticle vaccine is safe in people.

While this vaccine alone will not offer HIV protection and is intended to be part of an eventual broader, multistep vaccination regimen, the researchers also determined that it elicited a robust immune response in nearly all 36 healthy adult volunteers. How robust? The results show that the nanoparticle vaccine, known by the lab name eOD-GT8 60-mer, successfully expanded production of a rare type of antibody-producing immune B cell in nearly all recipients.

What makes this rare type of B cell so critical is that it is the cellular precursor of other B cells capable of producing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to protect against diverse HIV variants. Also very good news, the vaccine elicited broad responses from helper T cells.

  1. They play a critical supportive role for those essential B cells and their development of the needed broadly neutralizing antibodies.
  2. For decades, researchers have brought a wealth of ideas to bear on developing a safe and effective HIV vaccine.
  3. However, crossing the finish line—an FDA-approved vaccine—has proved profoundly difficult.

A major reason is the human immune system is ill equipped to recognize HIV and produce the needed infection-fighting antibodies. And yet the medical literature includes reports of people with HIV who have produced the needed antibodies, showing that our immune system can do it.

  1. But these people remain relatively rare, and the needed robust immunity clocks in only after many years of infection.
  2. On top of that, HIV has a habit of mutating rapidly to produce a wide range of identity-altering variants.
  3. For a vaccine to work, it most likely will need to induce the production of bnAbs that recognize and defend against not one, but the many different faces of HIV.
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To make the uncommon more common became the quest of a research team that includes scientists William Schief, Scripps Research and IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, La Jolla, CA; M. Juliana McElrath, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center, Seattle; and Kristen Cohen, a former member of the McElrath lab now at Moderna, Cambridge, MA.

The team, with NIH collaborators and support, has been plotting out a stepwise approach to train the immune system into making the needed bnAbs that recognize many HIV variants. The critical first step is to prime the immune system to make more of those coveted bnAb-precursor B cells. That’s where the protein nanoparticle known as eOD-GT8 60-mer enters the picture.

This nanoparticle, administered by injection, is designed to mimic a small, highly conserved segment of an HIV protein that allows the virus to bind and infect human cells. In the body, those nanoparticles launch an immune response and then quickly vanish.

But because this important protein target for HIV vaccines is so tiny, its signal needed amplification for immune system detection. To boost the signal, the researchers started with a bacterial protein called lumazine synthase (LumSyn). It forms the scaffold, or structural support, of the self-assembling nanoparticle.

Then, they added to the LumSyn scaffold 60 copies of the key HIV protein. This louder HIV signal is tailored to draw out and engage those very specific B cells with the potential to produce bnAbs. As the first-in-human study showed, the nanoparticle vaccine was safe when administered twice to each participant eight weeks apart.

People reported only mild to moderate side effects that went away in a day or two. The vaccine also boosted production of the desired B cells in all but one vaccine recipient (35 of 36). The idea is that this increase in essential B cells sets the stage for the needed additional steps—booster shots that can further coax these cells along toward making HIV protective bnAbs.

The latest finding in Science Translational Medicine looked deeper into the response of helper T cells in the same trial volunteers. Again, the results appear very encouraging. The researchers observed CD4 T cells specific to the HIV protein and to the LumSyn in 84 percent and 93 percent of vaccine recipients.

  1. Their analyses also identified key hotspots that the T cells recognized, which is important information for refining future vaccines to elicit helper T cells.
  2. The team reports that they’re now collaborating with Moderna, the developer of one of the two successful mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines, on an mRNA version of eOD-GT8 60-mer.

That’s exciting because mRNA vaccines are much faster and easier to produce and modify, which should now help to move this line of research along at a faster clip. Indeed, two International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI)-sponsored clinical trials of the mRNA version are already underway, one in the U.S.

and the other in Rwanda and South Africa, It looks like this team and others are now on a promising track toward following the basic science and developing a multistep HIV vaccination regimen that guides the immune response and its stepwise phases in the right directions. As we look back on more than 40 years of HIV research, it’s heartening to witness the progress that continues toward ending the HIV epidemic.

This includes the recent FDA approval of the drug Apretude, the first injectable treatment option for pre-exposure prevention of HIV, and the continued global commitment to produce a safe and effective vaccine.

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Can you make a vaccine for a retrovirus?

Development of Vaccines for Retrovirus – Drugs with protease activity or those as reverse transcriptase inhibitors can function in the way of targeting specific sites or specific sequences in their respective enzymes, but due to the rapid variation of genes encoding proteases or reverse transcriptases in viruses, the effective period of the drug is very short.

Because the reverse transcription process does not have a corrective function like that in DNA replication, the frequency of mutation within retrovirus is high, which is the molecular basis for the rapid resistance of the virus against viral drugs, and is also an important reason hindering the development of effective vaccines.

The Retroviridae family contains a large number of viruses hosted by different species, which can cause diseases such as malignant tumors, neurological disorders, and immunodeficiency. Historically, traditional retrovirus vaccines have often been unable to provide adequate protection, so the current vaccine research strategy is mainly to use DNA vaccines prepared by molecular biology.

  1. Despite the limited success of these vaccines, sporadic success and ongoing refinement of such vaccines suggest the feasibility of this strategy.
  2. Creative Biolabs has developed vaccines and related products and services for a variety of viruses in the Retroviridae family, including: Vaccine development is a great project that benefits the world.

Creative Biolabs is a research assistant who is highly trusted by customers in vaccine product development and vaccine service delivery via bringing together the advantages of global vaccine talent. If you have any vaccine research needs, please contact us immediately! Reference

N. James MacLachlan and Edward J. (2016). “Fenner’s Veterinary Virology, Fifth Edition” Chapter 14 Pages 273.

All of our products can only be used for research purposes. These vaccine ingredients CANNOT be used directly on humans or animals. : Vaccines for Virus from Retroviridae Family

Why hepatitis has no vaccine?

Right now, there is no vaccine for the hepatitis C virus. Researchers have been trying to make a vaccine against hepatitis C for many years, but they have not succeeded yet. The main reason there is no vaccine for hepatitis C is because this virus has many strains, called genotypes, and many subtypes.

  • To be effective, a vaccine must be able to protect against all or most of the genotypes and subtypes.
  • Hepatitis C has at least 7 genotypes and more than 80 subtypes.
  • Researchers continue to look for a vaccine that will be effective for hepatitis C.
  • In the meantime, drug companies have developed new drugs to treat hepatitis C.

These drugs can cure hepatitis C for most people, even chronic hepatitis C, no matter the genotype or subtype. This makes the search for a vaccine less urgent, yet still important. Other types of hepatitis viruses, types A and B, have had a vaccine for many years.