Low Grade Inflammation


Low Grade Inflammation
Low-grade inflammation is a chronic response to diseases, injuries, foreign invaders, etc that produces a steady, low level of inflammation constantly throughout the body. Our human systems have the ability to produce inflammation as a way to deal with injury and disease.

  • Sadly, this protective system has been turned against ourselves in the unique modern environment.
  • Low-grade inflammation is defined by increased CRP levels.
  • CRP (C-reactive protein) is one of the main inflammation biomarkers present in the body.
  • The higher your CRP levels the more inflammation is present throughout the body.

Low-grade inflammation can be defined with CRP levels of 3-10 mg/L. The range of what is considered ‘normal’ changes as each laboratory changes, so be mindful of this when checking your own levels. There are two ways to measure CRP; one can measure standard levels of CRP or check a ‘high sensitivity’ CRP.

Is low-grade inflammation bad?

Low-Grade Inflammation Can Lead to Systemic Inflammation – Inflammation plays a major role in preserving physiological homeostasis of an organism and is initiated when pathogens, bacteria, viruses, etc. are presented. Inflammation is first initiated on a cellular level, low-grade inflammation, and can from there expand to inflammation involving different inflammatory cascades and organs causing systemic inflammation.

Inflammation plays a central role in the body homeostasis and will, protect the body from illness and disease. On the other hand, prolonged or chronic inflammation releases proinflammatory cytokines and may expose the body to unfavorable conditions ( 8, 9 ). The vertebrate inflammatory system is composed of the innate and adaptive inflammatory systems, and both are equally important.

The innate immune system consists of macrophages, dendritic cells, mast cells, etc. Its main function is to detect bacteria, viruses, and foreign bodies in the organism as well as to activate the adaptive immune system and complement cascades. The adaptive immune system is highly specific and has developed throughout our lives.

It consists of T- and B-lymphocytes, where pattern recognition receptors, including toll-like receptors, along with the induction of cytokines, play a major role in the activation of the adaptive immune system. Cytokines, consisting of small proteins, are produced by a variety of cells, including T- and B-lymphocytes.

Cytokines can be proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory and may act as triggers for the release of other cytokines. They are important in chronic inflammation caused by oxidative stress ( 10 ). In recent years, research has begun to focus on the roles of gap junction coupled cells which form networks in different organs in the body.

Examples of cells coupled into networks include astrocytes, keratinocytes, chondrocytes, synovial fibroblasts, osteoblasts, connective tissue cells, cardiac and corneal fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, hepatocytes, and different types of glandular cells ( 11 ). They may be affected by different types of inflammatory stimuli, the cell signaling is changed through the connexin linked gap junctions ( 12 ), and the cellular networks become dysregulated ( 11 ).

An underlying mechanism to an inflammatory response at the site of the damaged or affected nerve is the presence of a low-grade inflammation. Inflammatory substances such as histamine, bradykinin, 5-HT, glutamate, purines, tryptases, chymases, cytokines, growth factors, free radicals, nitric oxide (NO), etc are released from connective tissue cells such as macrophages and mast cells and are transported by the blood from the injured region and influence different barrier systems ( 13 ).

Different inflammatory substances are also released from neurons located in the spinal cord and brain, which leads to an overactivation in the synaptic area. Resting microglia react and release cytokines. The astrocytes will then be reactive and can turn into dysfunctional astrocytes ( 1, 14 ). A low-grade inflammation can turn into a pathological state.

Barriers at different sites in the body might be affected and can cause spread of inflammatory substances affecting other network-linked gap junction cells in other organs, which can give rise to systemic inflammation ( Figure 1 ). Figure 1, Schematic illustration high-lightening different barriers in the body; the blood-brain barrier, blood-retinal barrier, blood-nerve barrier, blood-lymph barrier, and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. The left side demonstrates the normal physiological conditions and the right side demonstrates inflammatory conditions.

What can cause low-grade inflammation?

Acute vs. chronic inflammation – Injuries and infections produce acute inflammation, the body’s rapid response mechanism that aims to rid itself of the dangerous invader and return it to a state of balance. A release of warning chemicals sounds the alarm, which draws an army of white blood cells to the site of injury.

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Some of these cells neutralize the invaders, while others clean up the damage that results from the battle. Acute inflammation typically resolves quickly, within a period of hours to days. Chronic inflammation can begin via the same process, with the body trying to rid itself of what the immune system interprets as foreign adversaries.

But this can become a persistent state, even if the perceived threat isn’t truly harmful to one’s health. In like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, type 1 diabetes, ulcerative colitis, and multiple sclerosis, the body mistakenly reacts to its own tissues as if they were foreign, and produces damaging inflammation against them.

What is a low-grade inflammation biomarker?

Introduction – Low-grade inflammation is a condition not yet consistently defined or measured. A number of plasmatic (e.g. C-reactive protein) or cellular biomarkers (e.g. white blood cell and platelet counts) have been proposed as reliable indicators of such a condition.1, 2 This subclinical disorder has been recognized as a risk factor for a number of chronic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular (CVD) and neurodegenerative disease.3 – 6 In contrast, its relationship with mortality has been poorly investigated, at least in the general population, 7, 8 while evidence within high-risk groups is more robust.9 – 11 Low-grade inflammation has also been proposed as an underlying pathophysiological mechanism linking risk factors or metabolic disorders (e.g.

oxidative stress, obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia), to an increased risk of chronic degenerative disease 1 as well as a common pathogenic denominator in age-related diseases.12 Pioneering large-scale studies focused on circulating fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cell (WBC) counts as reliable inflammatory biomarkers, mostly in relation to cardiovascular events.6, 13 – 16 More recently, a pro-inflammatory action of blood platelets has been proposed, 17 whereas the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio better expresses an early inflammatory cellular response.18, 19 Evidence of the individual contribution of each of the above mentioned inflammatory biomarkers to different health outcomes is scarce.7, 14, 17 Previous data suggest that some inflammation biomarkers are associated with lifestyle modifications (e.g.

dietary habits 17 ) or electrocardiographic parameters, 19 emphasizing the need for further study on their association with clinical outcomes, such as the incidence of chronic degenerative disease and mortality rates. In this context, a comprehensive approach to measure a low-grade inflammation condition has been proposed in high cardiovascular risk subjects.20, 21 Lately, a significant inverse association of a composite low-grade inflammation score with dietary polyphenol intake has been observed by our group in a population-based cohort.22 The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether this composite low-grade inflammation score would be associated with overall mortality in an adult population cohort with no overt acute inflammation or major hematological diseases.

How do I know if I have low-grade inflammation?

Symptoms of Low-Grade Inflammation –

  • One of the reasons low-grade inflammation is rarely diagnosed is that it can present with an array of symptoms, and is only in recent years being
  • One reason that low-grade inflammation is so hard to recognize is that it can have different symptoms depending on what part of your body is inflamed.
  • For example, chronic gut inflammation can present with numerous gastrointestinal symptoms, while chronic inflammation in your joints may lead to body aches and pains.

For that reason, people suffering from chronic low-grade inflammation may experience a few or many of the following symptoms of inflammation:

  • Body aches and pains
  • Obesity
  • Stress and/or anxiety
  • Swelling
  • Fatigue
  • Depression, sadness, or apathy
  • Gastrointestinal problems like gas, bloating, constipation, or diarrhea
  • Trouble sleeping

What is an example of a low-grade inflammation?

What is low-grade inflammation? – It is a question that remains hard to answer. Low-grade inflammation is usually defined as “the chronic production, but a low-grade state, of inflammatory factors”. Conditions characterized by low-grade inflammation are for instance obesity (1), depression (2) or chronic pain (3).

Is low inflammation good?

Science has proven that chronic, low-grade inflammation can turn into a silent killer that contributes to cardiovascular disease, cancer, type 2 diabetes and other conditions.

Should I worry about inflammation?

Left unaddressed, chronic inflammation can damage healthy cells, tissues and organs, and may cause internal scarring, tissue death and damage to the DNA in previously healthy cells. Ultimately, this can lead to the development of potentially disabling or life-threatening illnesses, such as cancer or Type-2 diabetes.

What CRP level is low-grade inflammation?

Introduction – C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase protein and a general marker of several pathological processes, including infection, tissue damage, cancer, and chronic inflammatory disease, Low levels of CRP can be measured accurately, and it is thus possible to identify individuals with low-grade inflammation (LGI), defined as CRP measurement above 3 mg/L but below 10 mg/L,

  • LGI is associated with increased risk of several diseases : e.g., coronary heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer,
  • Also, LGI is widely used in cardiovascular risk assessment,
  • Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) represent individuals’ subjective assessment of their mental and physical well-being.
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HRQL is accepted as a health indicator in health surveys, and is one of the strongest predictors of survival in the general population, Further, HRQL is used to measure disease burden and as a screening tool for specific mental diseases, HRQL changes with age, and most studies agree that around 30% of the variance in self-rated health can be explained by genetic factors,

  • Chronic diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and heart disease are associated with impaired HRQL, especially physical health,
  • HRQL is also associated with future events (e.g., heart disease), where the risk of illness increases with decreasing HRQL,

LGI is suggested as one factor linking HRQL with future health outcomes, Although previous studies conducted in the general population indicate a robust relation between higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), acute-phase proteins (CRP and fibrinogen) or erythrocyte sedimentation rate and HRQL, the lack of sex-stratification in most studies could conceal sex-specific effects, and sufficient adjustment was not performed in all studies.

Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying the association of HRQL with morbidity and mortality risk are poorly understood. It is of interest to investigate whether higher levels of acute-phase proteins have an independent association with HRQL to tease out whether higher levels of inflammatory markers are rather a mediator of a confounder.

Therefore, we examined the association between HRQL, LGI (expressed as elevated CRP), and objectively measured clinical indicators among healthy individuals without clinical symptoms using a mediation analysis model. We hypothesized that LGI correlates with a lower physical and mental HRQL score in a population of blood donors, which has not previously been investigated in this context.

What does chronic low-grade inflammation mean?

2. Inflammation and Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation (CLGI) – Inflammation is part of the body’s innate and adaptive immune defenses. It comprises a series of cellular and chemical signal barriers which aim to control and conquer endogenous and exogenous stimuli (essentially bacterial or viral infections) and trauma-related damage,

Inflammation can be either an acute or chronic process, but both have common aims: namely, to neutralize the source of injury, promote tissue repair, and drive a self-limited return to homeostatic conditions, In contrast to acute inflammation (AI), chronic inflammation (CI) is a process linked to resolution failure and induces continuous recruitment of the cellular immune apparatus, promoting tissue damage,

Beyond the difference in duration between AI and CI, the degree of inflammatory response also determines whether inflammation becomes pathological. Under a non-overt inflammation scenario, a chronic, but low-grade inflammatory mechanism comprehends excessive metabolic stress correlated to the rise of circulating levels of inflammation signals,

  • Both CI and CLGI are borderline conditions sharing similar molecular mechanisms, but a distinct involvement of metabolic tissues characterizes CLGI progression.
  • Indeed, CLGI is currently considered to be a possible factor in the pathological aggravation of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), atherosclerosis, or cancer,

Compared to the chronic but severe inflammation present in arthritis or Crohn’s disease, metabolic disorders (such as obesity) and some age-related conditions (such as frailty) have only a CLGI component, This difference in the intensity of inflammation has orientated research seeking to characterize specific molecular patterns and biomarker clusters in order to develop predictive tools aimed at reducing the health and socioeconomic impacts of these pathologies.

Although the terms “Low-Grade Inflammation” or “Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation” are used interchangeably in the literature, we here take “chronic” to be a compulsory requirement for the low-grade inflammatory stimulus to promote some sort of pathological effect. Thus, based on the extensive literature currently published, CLGI can be formally defined as a pathological state lacking overt inflammation, but characterized by continuous and unresolved activation of inflammation mediators.

It results in increased production of cytokines, reactive oxygen species, macrophage infiltration, adipocyte imbalance, or vascular damage; these effects are associated with metabolically active tissues such as adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and the liver, implicating CLGI in metabolic diseases,

Why do I have inflammation markers?

Blood tests known as ‘inflammatory markers’ can detect inflammation in the body, caused by many diseases including infections, auto-immune conditions and cancers. The tests don’t identify what’s causing the inflammation: it might be as simple as a viral infection, or as serious as cancer.

What cancers have inflammation?

The causes – Chronic inflammation’s role in cancer development isn’t a small one. As many as one in five cancers are believed to be caused or influenced by inflammation. One reason is that chronic inflammation may damage DNA, says Cynthia Lynch, MD, Medical Director of the CTCA ® Breast Cancer Center, Phoenix and Medical Oncologist at our Phoenix hospital,

  1. Other times, the inflammatory process produces molecules called cytokines, which stimulate the growth of blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the tumor.
  2. The process also may generate molecules called free radicals that further damage the DNA.
  3. These inflammation side effects may help sustain and fuel cancer growth.
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The reason inflammation becomes chronic isn’t always apparent. It may be caused by infections that don’t go away, abnormal immune reactions to normal tissues, or certain conditions like obesity. Over time, chronic inflammation may damage DNA, leading to conditions like heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke and cancer.

  • Anything that causes inflammation will cause the DNA of a cell to replicate faster,” says Brad Mons, DO, Head and Neck Surgeon at our hospital in Tulsa.
  • The more your cells replicate, the higher chance you have of cancers developing.” Sometimes, cancer-causing chronic inflammation stems from a disease characterized by inflammation.

The inflammatory diseases colitis, pancreatitis and hepatitis, for example, are linked to a greater risk of colon, pancreatic and liver cancers, respectively. In these diseases, immune cells create highly reactive molecules containing oxygen and nitrogen that can damage DNA.

  1. Inflammation also may cause cells to divide.
  2. Chronic inflammation also may result from a chronic infection, like H.
  3. Pylori, which is linked to stomach cancer, and hepatitis B and hepatitis C, which are linked to liver cancer.
  4. HIV increases the risk of other viruses and very rare cancers, including Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and invasive cervical cancer,

In other cases, environmental factors are the culprits. Asbestos exposure, for example, increases the risk for mesothelioma, Many environmental carcinogens and risk factors, in fact, are associated with some form of chronic inflammation. According to the National Institutes of Health, up to 20 percent of cancers are linked to chronic infections, 30 percent are linked to tobacco smoking and inhaled pollutants, such as asbestos, and 35 percent are linked to dietary factors, including obesity.

Can inflammation cause tumors?

Summary – Inflammation predisposes to the development of cancer and promotes all stages of tumorigenesis. Cancer cells as well as surrounding stromal and inflammatory cells engage in well-orchestrated reciprocal interactions to form an inflammatory tumor microenvironment (TME).

Cells within the TME are highly plastic, continuously changing their phenotypic and functional characteristics. Here we review the origins of inflammation in tumors, and the mechanisms whereby inflammation drives tumor initiation, growth, progression and metastasis. We discuss how tumor promoting inflammation closely resembles inflammatory processes typically found during development, immunity, maintenance of tissue homeostasis or tissue repair, and illuminate the distinctions between tissue-protective and pro-tumorigenic inflammation, including spatio-temporal considerations.

Defining the cornerstone rules of engagement governing molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumor-promoting inflammation will be essential for the further development of anti-cancer therapies. Keywords: Inflammation, tumor microenvironment, cancer, cytokine, cell plasticity, tumor progression, metastasis, mechanisms

What does a low grade infection mean?

What is a ‘low’ grade infection? – The usual bacterial infections have symptoms of severe pain, swelling, redness, high fevers, pus and generally feeling unwell. These are the recognised infections. They are obvious. A low grade infection usually follows surgery or other interventions, such as joint injections.

  • They are less common and more difficult to recognise and diagnose.
  • The symptoms are usually persistant aching pain after surgery which does not respond to the usual treatments.
  • The joint is often very stiff and extremely painful.
  • There is no fever, sweats or general ill-health.
  • Blood tests, temperature and x-rays are normal.

The organisms that cause this are ones that live on your skin and in your body normally. The stress of the intervention causes them to proliferate and behave abnormally causing a low grade infection. The most common organism is Proprionibacterium Acnes (P.

Should I worry about inflammation?

Left unaddressed, chronic inflammation can damage healthy cells, tissues and organs, and may cause internal scarring, tissue death and damage to the DNA in previously healthy cells. Ultimately, this can lead to the development of potentially disabling or life-threatening illnesses, such as cancer or Type-2 diabetes.

What should inflammation levels be?

What are the normal values for ESR, CRP and PV? –

ESR : the normal range is 0-22 mm/hr for men and 0-29 mm/hr for women. CRP : most people without any underlying health problem have a CRP level less than 3 mg/L and nearly always less than 10 mg/L. PV : the normal range for adults is 1.50-1.72 mPA.

These ‘normal ranges’ provide a guide. However CRP, ESR and PV levels can vary with factors such as age, pregnancy and between different hospital laboratories. The importance of the test result therefore needs to be considered in the context of each individual person.