Mcgill Pain Questionnaire
- 1 What is the McGill Pain Scale Index?
- 2 How many questions are on the McGill Pain Questionnaire?
- 3 Is the McGill Pain Questionnaire reliable?
- 4 What is the pain scoring criteria?
- 5 How to complete McGill Pain Questionnaire?
- 6 What pain score is chronic pain?
- 7 What is the pain outcomes questionnaire?
- 8 What is the pain level measurement?
What does the McGill Pain Questionnaire measure?
McGill Pain Questionnaire – The McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) is a list of 78 words divided into three domains (Sensory, Affective, and Evaluative) and 6 words for current pain intensity. While the validity of the domains and the MPQ has been called into question by some researchers it continues to be one of the most extensively used pain measures in research and clinical practice.
- While the quantitative value of the McGill is open for debate the qualitative value is clear.
- Melzack identified and organized the lexicon of pain in a manner that made it accessible to patients and professionals.
- Within the three domains are a total to 20 subcategories each containing from 3 to 6 descriptive words.
The first domain (sensory) containing subcategories 1 to 10 includes 42 descriptors; the second domain (affective) containing subcategories 11 to 15 includes 14 descriptors; the third domain (evaluative) containing subcategory 16 includes 5 descriptors; and subcategories 17 to 20 are miscellaneous items that contain 17 descriptors.
Each subcategory receives a numeric score equal to the rank order of the highest descriptor chosen. For example subcategory 1 includes the following words with the numeric value in parentheses: Flickering (1), quivering (2), pulsing (3), throbbing (4), beating (5), and pounding (6). Subcategory 2 includes the following words with the numeric value in parentheses: Jumping (1), flashing (2), and shooting (3).
If the patient identifies “pulsing” and “shooting” each subcategory would have a numerical value of 3 despite “pulsing” being the third of six choices and “shooting” being the third of three choices. The subjective ordinal nature and varied number of items in the subcategories decreases the psychometric soundness of the MPQ.
Likewise, the sensory domain has a range of scores from 0 to 42, the affective domain has a range of scores from 0 to 14, the evaluative domain has a range of scores from 0 to 5, and the miscellaneous items can account for 0 to 17 points. As a result of the varied relative contribution of each domain they are not able to be directly compared in a quantitative manner.
The domains and miscellaneous items are summed to determine the Pain Rating Index (PRI) and another set of 6 descriptors is provided to identify the Present Pain Index (PPI). Despite the statistical limitations of the MPQ the Pain Rating Index (PRI) and Present Pain Index (PPI) do appear to have high clinical and research utility.
- They can provide an ipsative comparison for each patient in a test-retest format and allow for a quick point of reference on each patient contact if the PPI is used alone.
- The descriptors provide an inclusive lexicon of pain quality which makes communication between patient and clinician more accurate and can aid with identifying pain etiology.
However, the complexity of the terms can be a problem for patients of lower IQ and other measures should be used in cases of below average IQ.8 The MPQ short-form is a modified version that provides a brief (2 to 5 minutes) alternative to the MPQ (10 to 15 minutes).9 It consists of 15 descriptive words taken from the MPQ subcategories with a Likert scale of 0 to 3 next to each word.
- The 15 descriptors consist of 10 words and 1 set of combined descriptors (Hot-Burning) from the Sensory Domain and 2 words and 2 sets of combined descriptors (Tiring-Exhausting and Punishing-Cruel) from the Affective Domain.
- The possible range of scores is 0 to 45.
- The MPQ short-form also includes the Present Pain Index (PPI) and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS).
The short-form has been shown to have high correlations with the original McGill Pain Scale. Read full chapter URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978141603779810003X
What is the McGill Pain Scale Index?
McGill Pain Questionnaire
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McGill Pain QuestionnaireMcGill Pain IndexPurposescale to rate pain The McGill Pain Questionnaire, also known as McGill Pain Index, is a scale of rating developed at by and Torgerson in 1971. It is a self-report questionnaire that allows individuals to give their doctor a good description of the quality and intensity of pain that they are experiencing.
The users are presented with a list of 78 words in 20 sections that are related to pain. The users mark the words that best describe their pain (multiple markings are allowed). Among the words, sections of these words signify different components of pain, namely, Sensory (sections 1-10), Affective (sections 11-15), Evaluative (section 16), and Miscellaneous (sections 17-20).
According to the it is the most frequently used measurement tool for multidimensional pain assessment in chronic pain.
How many questions are on the McGill Pain Questionnaire?
Assessments of longer-term effects (first-day/last-day measures) – • The McGill Pain Questionnaire ( Melzack 1987 ) defines the sensory, affective, and evaluative dimensions of pain based on a four point Likert scale. The questionnaire consists of eleven questions based on the sensory dimensions of pain and four questions based on the affective dimensions of pain, with answer choices of 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, and 3 = severe.
The evaluative dimension of pain is determined by a Present Pain Intensity (PPI) and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), The PPI scale measures pain experienced right now based on a 6-point Likert scale with choices of 0 = no pain, 1 = mild, 2 = discomforting, 3 = distressing, 4 = horrible, and 5 = excruciating.
The VAS is a no pain to worst possible pain rating. • The Profile of Mood States ( McNair et al 1971 ) was also completed. Read full chapter URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780443057915500063
Is the McGill Pain Questionnaire reliable?
Discussion – The integrative review findings provide a portrait of the MPQ as a multidimensional measure of pain in people with cancer. Across the 30 studies were participants with cancer who typically had three pain sites and discomforting pain intensity.
Of 78 pain descriptors, participants with cancer selected descriptors representative of all three dimensions (sensory, affective, and cognitive). Participants’ reports of pain patterns were inconsistent depending upon differences in cancer type and treatments. Taking analgesic drugs was the main method to alleviate participants’ pain whereas participants’ movement that affected the disease area was the key cause of aggravating their pain.
The sensory pain dimension was the most frequently reported pain dimension in all studies. Pain location based on an anatomical distinction was related to the primary source (cancer diagnosis) and secondary sources of pain, including metastases, surgical location, complications of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and referred pain.
Mostly, participants with cancer indicated more than one pain site that was usually an internal site, which means that the pain occurred from the deep somatic, visceral, or neuronal tissue damage rather than an external pain caused by superficial tissue damage. Pain location of the MPQ was validated in participants with cancer ( McGuire, 1984 ).
Therefore, monitoring body outline may be useful in the clinical practice because it provides an empirical documentation of pain location for the medical record and, with repeated measures, reflects the progression of the spatial distribution of the pain.
Participants with cancer overall evaluate cancer pain as moderate pain, compared with reports of intense pain when subjects had indicators of nervous tissue damage (neuropathic pain) ( Wilkie et al., 2001 ), radiotherapy treatment, or after the course of radiotherapy ( Epstein & Stewart, 1993 ; Huang, Wilkie, Chapman et al., 2003 ).
And participants’ pain pattern varied when they were receiving radiotherapy ( Epstein & Stewart, 1993 ; Huang, Wilkie, Chapman et al., 2003 ). However, since pain is a dynamic sensation that changes from time to time, frequent pain measurement will provide clinicians with accurate pain information ( Jensen & McFarland, 1993 ) to determine and provide the pain medications for pain control.
It was noted that the emotional status of participants was associated with sensory pain when investigators combined the MPQ and other instruments (VAS and other intensity scales, CSQ, STAI, and CES-D). Participants with cancer who were depressed reported higher pain intensity ( Kremer et al., 1982 ) than those who were not depressed ( Sist et al., 1998 ).
Interestingly, in this review it was noted that coping strategies were associated with pain intensity and quality as measured by the MPQ ( Wilkie & Keefe, 1991 ), but only the catastrophizing subscale score from the Coping Strategies Questionnaire was correlated with other psychological factors, including depression level and state and trait anxieties ( Fischer et al., 2009 ).
Focusing on decreasing catastrophizing could be an important factor to decrease participants’ pain, which is a hypothesis that deserves additional research. The combination of the MPQ with other tools provides additional validity and important clinical information about participants with cancer and pain who also are impacted by physiological and psychological conditions.
Pain-related behavior is associated with pain location in a weight-bearing structure, such as shoulders, arms, and legs, and is exacerbated by movement ( Ahles & Martin, 1992 ). For example, participants with head and neck cancer aggravated their pain when eating, drinking, and swallowing ( Huang, Wilkie, Chapman et al., 2003 ; Nicholson et al., 1988 ).
- Taking pain medication was the most common means of alleviating participants’ pain.
- Therefore, providing pain medication prior to patient’s activity can help them maintain pain relief.
- Observation of pain behaviors by videoing ( Wilkie et al., 1992 ) may be an effective method for clinicians to record participants’ pain control behaviors as it provides additional information not obtained with the MPQ.
These results support the MPQ as a valid, reliable, and sensitive multidimensional measure to measure pain in people with cancer. Since cancer pain is a dynamic phenomenon, the reliability of pain measures is typically less strong in measuring pain over time than when measures are in close proximity.
As a result, the validity of pain measures becomes more crucial ( Jensen, Karoly, O’Riordan, Bland, & Burns, 1989 ). Up to now, pain measurement tends to recognize sensitivity to treatment effect and the assessment of treatment outcomes ( Caraceni, 2001 ). The results also support that the MPQ detects changes induced by the treatments and interventions and changes associated with pain outcome predictors.
Interestingly, the review findings documented that pain was less in the more recent studies (1999-2009) than in studies from the 1980s and early 1990s. Whether this finding is an artifact of investigators’ inability to recruit participants with more pain or an indication of improvements in cancer pain management requires additional study.
What is a 5 pain score?
5 = Moderately strong pain. You can’t ignore it for more than a few minutes. But, with effort, you can still work or do some social activities.
What is the pain scoring criteria?
Numeric rating scales (NRS) – This pain scale is most commonly used. A person rates their pain on a scale of 0 to 10 or 0 to 5. Zero means “no pain,” and 5 or 10 means “the worst possible pain.” These pain intensity levels may be assessed upon initial treatment, or periodically after treatment.
How to complete McGill Pain Questionnaire?
Sections: (1) What Does Your Pain Feel Like? (2) How Does Your Pain Change with Time? (3) How Strong is Your Pain? What Does Your Pain Feel Like? Statement: Some of the following words below describe your present pain. Circle ONLY those words that best describe it.
What is 42 50 in the McGill Pain Scale?
CRPS More than just pain Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) Is poorly understood. CRPS is one of the highest pain & inflammatory diseases known carrying a 42/50 in the McGill pain scale, CRPS usually occurs after an injury. There is no simple cure or single treatment recommendations it requires a multidisciplinary approach to help manage.
CRPS is more than just pain, for me it has spread to many parts of my body along with pain in the organs and systemic issues. CRPS can become very overwhelming, more understanding and education is desperately needed by physicians and people in general. This RARE DISEASE effects not only those who suffer but there family and carers.
: CRPS More than just pain
What is a 3 pain score?
Using the Pain Scale If you want your pain to be taken seriously, It is important that you take the pain scale seriously. Because pain is subjective, it is difficult to explain what you’re feeling to another person—even your own doctor. To effectively use the pain scale, familiarize yourself with the levels before your procedure, identifying what key levels are indicative to your pain level.
- Following a surgery or procedure, typically we tell patients to continue to take medications that allow them to maintain a level of “5 or below.” 0 – Pain Free Mild Pain – Nagging, annoying, but doesn’t really interfere with daily living activities.1 – Pain is very mild, barely noticeable.
- Most of the time you don’t think about it.2 – Minor pain.
Annoying and may have occasional stronger twinges.3 – Pain is noticeable and distracting, however, you can get used to it and adapt. Moderate Pain – Interferes significantly with daily living activities.4 – Moderate pain. If you are deeply involved in an activity, it can be ignored for a period of time, but is still distracting.5 – Moderately strong pain.
- It can’t be ignored for more than a few minutes, but with effort you still can manage to work or participate in some social activities.6 – Moderately strong pain that interferes with normal daily activities.
- Difficulty concentrating.
- Severe Pain – Disabling; unable to perform daily living activities.7 – Severe pain that dominates your senses and significantly limits your ability to perform normal daily activities or maintain social relationships.
Interferes with sleep.8 – Intense pain. Physical activity is severely limited. Conversing requires great effort.9 – Excruciating pain. Unable to converse. Crying out and/or moaning uncontrollably.10 – Unspeakable pain. Bedridden and possibly delirious. Very few people will ever experience this level of pain.
How to calculate pain disability questionnaire?
Outcome instrument: the pain disability index – The Pain Disability Index (PDI) is a 7-item questionnaire to investigate the magnitude of self-reported pain-related disability, independent from region of pain or pain-related diagnosis. The items of the questionnaire are assessed on a 0–10 numeric rating scale in which 0 means no disability and 10 is maximum disability.
- The sum of the seven items equals the total score of the PDI, which ranges from 0 to 70, with higher scores reflecting higher interference of pain with daily activities.
- The PDI measures family / home responsibilities, recreation, social activity, occupation, sexual behavior, self-care and life support activity,
Missing items were resolved as follows: patients were allowed to miss no more than 1 question on the PDI. In this case, the missing value was replaced by the patient cluster mean. As the PDI only consists of seven questions, the patient was excluded from the study if the patient missed more than one question on the PDI.
How to score the Mcgill Quality of Life Questionnaire?
Scoring. Each question uses a 0–10 scale with anchors at each end. Scores consist of three parts: (1) Part ‘A’ is a Single-Item Scale (MQOL-SIS) measuring overall quality of life, (2) five subscales discussed below, and (3) a total score which is the mean of the five subscales.
What is the most accurate pain assessment?
Since pain is subjective, self-report is considered the Gold Standard and most accurate measure of pain. The PQRST method of assessing pain is a valuable tool to accurately describe, assess and document a patient’s pain. The method also aids in the selection of appropriate pain medication and evaluating the response to treatment.
What pain score is chronic pain?
GCPS-R scoring: – The scoring algorithm for the GCPS-R is explained in Figure 2, Persons reporting no pain or pain on some days on Item 1 (i.e., pain not present on most days or every day) are placed at Grade 0—chronic pain absent. Some persons with pain that may be bothersome or have high impact, but who do not report chronic pain, may be included in Grade 0. Chronic pain grade scoring rules for Graded Chronic Pain Scale – Revised Persons with chronic pain are placed at Grades 1, 2 or 3. Among persons with chronic pain, those who report that pain limits their life activities or work on most days or every day in the past 3 months (Item 2) are placed at Grade 3 (High impact chronic pain).
Among the remaining persons with chronic pain, those with a PEG total score of 12 or greater are placed at Grade 2 (Bothersome chronic pain). Those with chronic pain that is not high impact and whose PEG score is less than 12 are placed at Grade 1 (Mild chronic pain). There are several differences between the GCPS-R and original GCPS scoring algorithms.
The original GCPS did not differentiate persons with and without chronic pain per se. The original GCPS included an extra item asking about pain days in the prior 6 months that could be used to assess chronic pain status, but it was not incorporated in GCPS scoring.
- In the original GCPS, persons with high pain-related disability could be placed at Grade 3 or 4, whereas GCPS-R places all persons with high pain-related disability in a single grade (GCPS-R Grade 3), corresponding to high impact chronic pain,
- The GCPS-R distinction between Grades 1 and 2 (mild versus bothersome chronic pain) is based on a PEG score of 12 or greater (corresponding to an average item rating of 4 on 0 to 10 pain ratings).
For the original GCPS, Grades 1 and 2 differentiated persons with low versus high pain intensity, with high pain intensity defined by an average pain intensity rating of 5 or greater on ratings of average pain, worst pain and current pain. The lower threshold for bothersome pain was selected because: 1) the PEG includes not only a pain intensity item but also ratings of pain-related interference with activities and enjoyment of life, whereas the original GCPS only considered pain intensity in differentiating Grades 1 and 2, and 2) research has established that patients typically would regard a pain level of less than 4 acceptable if sustained long-term,
What is the world’s worst pain?
Trigeminal neuralgia – Trigeminal neuralgia or tic douloureux is a chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal or fifth cranial nerve. It is one of the most painful conditions known. It causes extreme, sporadic and sudden burning pain or electric shock sensation in the face, including the eyes, lips, scalp, nose, upper jaw, forehead, and lower jaw.
What is average daily pain score?
Treatment of Neuropathic Pain Associated With Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy – Full Text View Primary Outcome Measures :
Mean Change From Baseline to Week 5 in Average Daily Pain Score (ADPS) Following Treatment With DS-5565 Compared to Pregabalin and Placebo Average daily pain score (ADPS) is a participant-reported instrument that measures pain intensity using an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) where 0 is defined as no pain and 10 is defined as worst possible pain. Higher scores indicate worse pain intensity level. The change from baseline to Week 5 is reported where a negative value is considered an improvement in pain intensity. A minimally meaningful effect was defined as a decrease of at least 1.0 point versus placebo).
Secondary Outcome Measures :
Least Square Means of Average Daily Pain Score by Week Mixed Effects Model for Repeated Measures (MMRM) Following Treatment With DS-5565 Compared to Pregabalin and Placebo Average daily pain score (ADPS) is a participant-reported instrument that measures pain intensity using an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) where 0 is defined as no pain and 10 is defined as worst possible pain. Higher scores indicate worse pain intensity level. The least square means of ADPS (assessed by MMRM) are reported where a negative value is considered an improvement in pain intensity. A minimally meaningful effect was defined as a decrease of at least 1.0 point versus placebo). Average Daily Pain Score Responder Rates Based on ≥30% and ≥50% Decrease From Baseline at Endpoint) Following Treatment With DS-5565 or Placebo Compared to Pregabalin Average daily pain score (ADPS) is a participant-reported instrument that measures pain intensity using an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) where 0 is defined as no pain and 10 is defined as worst possible pain. Higher scores indicate worse pain intensity level. Mean Change From Baseline to End-of-Treatment in Average Daily Sleep Interference Score Following Treatment With DS-5565 Compared to Pregabalin and Placebo Average Daily Sleep Interference Score (ADSIS) is the weekly average of patient-reported sleep interference (rated every morning on a numerical scale of 0 = “pain did not interfere with sleep” to 10 = “pain completely interfered with sleep” over the past 24 h), where higher scores indicate worse outcome.The change from baseline to Week 5 in ADSIS is being reported as the average of the last 7 available daily scores. The greater the negative value, the greater the improvement in sleep. Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) Sensory and Affective Scores Change From Baseline to Endpoint Following Treatment With DS-5565 Compared to Pregabalin and Placebo The SF-MPQ sensory score is the sum of 11 pain descriptors each scored from 0 to 3: throbbing, shooting, stabbing, sharp cramping, gnawing, hot-burning, aching, heavy, tender, and splitting. Thus, the SF-MPQ sensory score ranges from 0 to 33, where lower scores indicate a better outcome. The SF-MPQ affective score is the sum of four pain descriptors each scored from 0 to 3: tiring-exhausting, sickening, fearful, and punishing cruel. Thus, SF-MPQ affective score ranges from 0 to 12, where lower scores indicate a better outcome. The change from baseline to Week 5 in SF-MPQ sensory and affective scores are being reported. The greater the negative value, the greater the improvement in sensory and affective scores. Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) Total Score and Visual Analog Scale Change From Baseline to Endpoint Following Treatment With DS-5565 Compared to Pregabalin and Placebo The SF-MPQ sensory score is the sum of 11 pain descriptors each scored from 0 to 3: throbbing, shooting, stabbing, sharp cramping, gnawing, hot-burning, aching, heavy, tender, and splitting. Thus, the SF-MPQ sensory score ranges from 0 to 33, where lower scores indicate a better outcome. The SF-MPQ affective score is the sum of four pain descriptors each scored from 0 to 3: tiring-exhausting, sickening, fearful, and punishing cruel. Thus, SF-MPQ affective score ranges from 0 to 12, where lower scores indicate a better outcome. The SF-MPQ total score comprises the sum of the sensory and affective scores. The SF-MPQ VAS ranges from 0 (no pain) to 100 (worst possible pain), where lower scores indicate a better outcome. The change from baseline to Week 5 in SF-MPQ total score and VAS are being reported. The greater the negative value, the greater the improvement in total score (sensory and affective scores) and VAS pain. Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) Present Pain Intensity Change From Baseline to Endpoint Following Treatment With DS-5565 Compared to Pregabalin and Placebo The SF-MPQ present pain intensity ranges from 0 (no pain) to 5 (excruciating), where lower scores indicate a better outcome. The change from baseline to Week 5 in SF-MPQ present pain intensity is being reported. The greater the negative value, the greater the improvement in present pain intensity. Mean Change From Baseline to Endpoint of Modified Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) Subscale, Interference With Daily Functions, Following Treatment With DS-5565 Compared to Pregabalin and Placebo The Modified Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) includes Interference with Daily Functions Subscale, Worst Pain Intensity, Least Pain Intensity, Average Pain Intensity, Pain Right Now, and Relief From Pain. The range of interference subscale is 0-10, where lower scores indicate a better outcome. The change from baseline to Week 5 in Modified Brief Pain Inventory is being reported. The greater the negative value, the greater the improvement in interference with daily functions. Mean Change From Baseline to Endpoint of Modified BPI Subscales, Worst, Least and Average Pain Intensity, Following Treatment With DS-5565 Compared to Pregabalin and Placebo The Modified Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) includes Interference with Daily Functions Subscale, Worst Pain Intensity, Least Pain Intensity, Average Pain Intensity, Pain Right Now, and Relief From Pain. The range of worst pain intensity in the last 24 hours is 0-10, where lower scores indicate a better outcome. The range of least pain intensity in the last 24 hours is 0-10, where lower scores indicate a better outcome. The range of average pain intensity in the last 24 hours is 0-10, where lower scores indicate a better outcome. The change from baseline to Week 5 in Modified Brief Pain Inventory is being reported. The greater the negative value, the greater the improvement in worst, least, and average pain intensity. Mean Change From Baseline to Endpoint of Modified BPI Subscale, Pain Right Now, Following Treatment With DS-5565 Compared to Pregabalin and Placebo The Modified Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) includes Interference with Daily Functions Subscale, Worst Pain Intensity, Least Pain Intensity, Average Pain Intensity, Pain Right Now, and Relief From Pain. The range of pain right now is 0-10, where lower scores indicate a better outcome. The change from baseline to Week 5 in Modified Brief Pain Inventory is being reported. For pain right now, the greater the negative value, the greater the improvement. Mean Change From Baseline to Endpoint of Modified BPI Subscale, Relief From Pain, Following Treatment With DS-5565 Compared to Pregabalin and Placebo The Modified Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) includes Interference with Daily Functions Subscale, Worst Pain Intensity, Least Pain Intensity, Average Pain Intensity, Pain Right Now, and Relief From Pain. The range of % relief from pain is 0-100, where higher scores indicate a better outcome. The change from baseline to Week 5 in Modified Brief Pain Inventory is being reported. For relief from pain, the higher the score, the greater the improvement in pain relief. Patient Global Impression of Change at End-of-Treatment or Early Termination Following Treatment With DS-5565 Compared to Pregabalin and Placebo Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) has a range of 7 possible responses for overall status since start of the study, where 0 was defined as ‘Very much improved’ and 7 was defined as ‘Very much worse’. Lower scores indicate a better outcome. PGIC was analyzed based on the following definitions: Participant’s overall status was minimally improved or better (ie, score ≤3) or Participant’s overall status was much improved or better (ie, score ≤ 2). Drug-related Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events (n ≥2 Participants in Any Treatment Group) Following Treatment With DS-5565 Compared to Pregabalin and Placebo Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were defined as adverse events (AEs) which began or worsened in severity after the first administration of study drug. Drug-related TEAEs included AEs that were considered related to the study drug as judged by the Investigator. TEAEs were classified according to MedDRA 14.1.
Age > 18 years of age Able to give informed consent and willing to comply with scheduled visits, treatment plan, laboratory tests, and other trial procedures Type 1 or type 2 diabetes with a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≤ 10% at Screening and on a stable antidiabetic medication regimen for at least 30 days prior to Screening (insulin therapy is acceptable) Painful distal symmetrical sensorimotor polyneuropathy (as per American Society of Pain Educators guidelines ) diagnosed for at least 6 months, based on neurological history and/or examination; diagnosis includes absent or reduced deep tendon reflexes at both ankles At Screening, a pain score of ≥ 40 mm on the SF-MPQ VAS At Randomization, a pain score of ≥ 40 mm on the SF-MPQ VAS and an ADPS of ≥ 4 on the 11-point NRS, the latter calculated from a minimum of 4 pain ratings in daily diaries obtained during the 1-week Baseline Period (prior to randomization) Creatinine clearance > 60 mL/min (estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation) Antidiabetic and other medications anticipated to remain stable and constant during the study period Women of child bearing potential (WOCBP) must be using an adequate method of contraception as detailed in the protocol to avoid pregnancy during the study and for 4 weeks after study completion
Diagnosis of mononeuropathy Use of concomitant medications that may confound assessments of efficacy and/or safety (see Section 5.2) Major psychiatric disorders Have had a malignancy other than basal cell carcinoma within the past 2 years At Visit 1, have a white blood cell count < 2500/mm3, neutrophil count < 1500/mm3, or platelet count < 100 x 103/mm3 Clinically significant unstable diabetes mellitus, unstable hepatic, respiratory, or hematologic illness, unstable cardiovascular disease (including myocardial infarction in the 3 months prior to Visit 1), or symptomatic peripheral vascular disease Clinically significant findings on the Screening ECG History of pernicious anemia, untreated hypothyroidism, chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis B within the past 3 months, or human immunodeficiency virus infection Amputations of body parts other than toes Prior therapeutic failure of pregabalin or gabapentin (considered unresponsive or intolerant to treatment); therapeutic failure implies lack of efficacy following full titration to effective doses (eg, 300 mg/day for pregabalin) Known hypersensitivity to pregabalin or gabapentin Requirement for concomitant anticonvulsant and antidepressant therapy, with the exception of stable doses of SSRIs Neurologic disorders unrelated to DPN that may confound the assessment of pain associated with DPN Skin conditions that could alter sensation Other sources of pain that may confound assessment or self-evaluation of the pain due to DPN Abuse of prescription medications, street drugs or alcohol (including alcohol dependence) within the last 1 year Current enrollment in another investigational study, participation in another investigational study with the past 30 days, or other current or recent use of any investigational drug Pregnancy (as based on lab test results) or breast feeding Laboratory values exceeding limits listed in Table 4.1 of the protocol
: Treatment of Neuropathic Pain Associated With Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy – Full Text View
What is the pain scale 7 10 10?
Types of pain scales – The most common type of pain scale measures how intense pain is. Here are some pain scales you may see in practice:
Numeric rating scale: This uses a 1 to 10 scale to allow patients to rate their pain. Zero is considered no pain; 1 to 3 is mild pain; 4 to 6 is moderate pain and 7 to 10 is severe pain. Visual analog scale: This uses a continuous line, with one end marked as “no pain” and the other end marked as “worst possible pain.” Patients then are asked to mark a spot on the line to show their pain intensity, and doctors then determine a pain score. Categorical scale: In place of numbers, this scale uses words to indicate their pain. One end of the scale is “no pain” to “mild pain,” with the other end of the scale marked with “very severe pain” and “worst possible pain.” A version of this scale, known as the Wong-Baker Faces Scale, is used for children that uses graphic faces; “no pain” has a smiling green face, with a red crying face for “hurts worst.”
An example of a pain scale. Credit: Getty Images. Other pain scales are considered multidimensional, as they incorporate factors other than intensity of pain. Multidimensional pain tools are less commonly used. They can include initial pain assessment tools, the brief pain inventory and the McGill pain questionnaire.
What is the pain outcomes questionnaire?
This instrument was developed as a quality improvement tool and incorporates pain intensity, pain interference, patient satisfaction, and pain medica- tion items. However, the APSPOQ was designed to assess acute and cancer pain outcomes rather than chronic pain outcomes.
What is the pain level measurement?
Numerical Rating Pain Scale – The Numerical Rating Pain Scale is a simple pain scale that grades pain levels from 0 (No pain), 1,2, and 3 (Mild), 4,5, and 6 (Moderate), 7,8, and 9 (Severe) to 10 (Worst Pain Possible). This simple tool assumes a grasp of basic number skills and is recommended for patients over the age of nine.
What is the pain standard measure?
Numeric rating scale – The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS-11) is an 11-point scale for patient self-reporting of pain. It is based solely on the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and can be used for adults and children 10 years old or older.
|1–3||Mild Pain (nagging, annoying, interfering little with ADLs)|
|4–6||Moderate Pain (interferes significantly with ADLs)|
|7–10||Severe Pain (disabling; unable to perform ADLs)|
Pain interferes with a person’s ability to perform ADLs. Pain also interferes with a person’s ability to concentrate, and to think. A sufficiently strong pain can be disabling on a person’s concentration and coherent thought, even though it is not strong enough to prevent that person’s performance of ADLs. However, there is no system available for measuring concentration and thought.