Mechanism Of Inflammation Slideshare
- 1 What are the 5 mechanisms of inflammation?
- 2 What is the mechanism of swelling in inflammation?
- 3 What are mediators of inflammation in pathophysiology?
What is the mechanism of inflammation?
INTRODUCTION – Inflammation is the immune system’s response to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, toxic compounds, or irradiation, and acts by removing injurious stimuli and initiating the healing process, Inflammation is therefore a defense mechanism that is vital to health,
Usually, during acute inflammatory responses, cellular and molecular events and interactions efficiently minimize impending injury or infection. This mitigation process contributes to restoration of tissue homeostasis and resolution of the acute inflammation. However, uncontrolled acute inflammation may become chronic, contributing to a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases,
At the tissue level, inflammation is characterized by redness, swelling, heat, pain, and loss of tissue function, which result from local immune, vascular and inflammatory cell responses to infection or injury, Important microcirculatory events that occur during the inflammatory process include vascular permeability changes, leukocyte recruitment and accumulation, and inflammatory mediator release,
- Various pathogenic factors, such as infection, tissue injury, or cardiac infarction, can induce inflammation by causing tissue damage.
- The etiologies of inflammation can be infectious or non-infectious (Table 1 ).
- In response to tissue injury, the body initiates a chemical signaling cascade that stimulates responses aimed at healing affected tissues.
These signals activate leukocyte chemotaxis from the general circulation to sites of damage. These activated leukocytes produce cytokines that induce inflammatory responses,
What are the 5 mechanisms of inflammation?
|The cardinal signs of inflammation include: pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Some of these indicators can be seen here due to an allergic reaction.|
|Symptoms||Heat, pain, redness, swelling|
|Complications||Asthma, pneumonia, autoimmune diseases|
|Duration||Acute : few days Chronic : up to many months, or years|
|Causes||Infection, physical injury, autoimmune disorder|
Inflammation (from Latin : inflammatio ) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
The function of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, and initiate tissue repair. The five cardinal signs are heat, pain, redness, swelling, and loss of function (Latin calor, dolor, rubor, tumor, and functio laesa ).
Inflammation is a generic response, and therefore it is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity, as compared to adaptive immunity, which is specific for each pathogen. Too little inflammation could lead to progressive tissue destruction by the harmful stimulus (e.g.
bacteria) and compromise the survival of the organism. In contrast, too much inflammation, in the form of chronic inflammation, is associated with various diseases, such as hay fever, periodontal disease, atherosclerosis, and osteoarthritis, Inflammation can be classified as either acute or chronic,
Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli, and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes (in particular granulocytes ) from the blood into the injured tissues. A series of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, and various cells within the injured tissue.
Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells present at the site of inflammation, such as mononuclear cells, and is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process. Inflammation has also been classified as Type 1 and Type 2 based on the type of cytokines and helper T cells (Th1 and Th2) involved.
Inflammation is not a synonym for infection, Infection describes the interaction between the action of microbial invasion and the reaction of the body’s inflammatory response—the two components are considered together when discussing an infection, and the word is used to imply a microbial invasive cause for the observed inflammatory reaction.
Inflammation, on the other hand, describes purely the body’s immunovascular response—whatever the cause may be. But because of how often the two are correlated, words ending in the suffix -itis (which refers to inflammation) are sometimes informally described as referring to infection. For example, the word urethritis strictly means only “urethral inflammation”, but clinical health care providers usually discuss urethritis as a urethral infection because urethral microbial invasion is the most common cause of urethritis.
However, the inflammation–infection distinction becomes crucial for situations in pathology and medical diagnosis where inflammation is not driven by microbial invasion, such as the cases of atherosclerosis, trauma, ischemia, and autoimmune diseases (including type III hypersensitivity ).
What is the mechanism of inflammation in pathophysiology?
Abstract – Inflammation results from activation of the immune system in response to a broad range of different stimuli. The immune system is a highly complex and evolutionary optimized defense system with cellular and humoral components. The course of an inflammatory response is influenced by the immune condition of the host, the virulence e.g.
- Of an infectious agent, and the fine tuning of the local tissue reaction, which may be influenced by individual genetic factors.
- Immunity is a compromise between insufficient (immunodeficiency) or exaggerated (autoimmunity) immune reactions.
- The dynamic balance between these two extremes is achieved through stringent T- and B-cell selection in the bone marrow and thymus on the one hand and through “checkpoint control” in peripheral lymphatic tissues.
Many tumors have ways to suppress local immune responses and to escape destruction through the immune system (one of the so-called “hallmarks of cancer”). In recent years, different approaches have successfully been able to reverse this local immunosuppression.
What are the 4 processes of inflammation?
Inflammation is a protective response of cells to pathogens, infection or tissue damage. It involves the coordinated communication of different immune cells and blood vessels through an intricate cascade of molecular signals. Inflammation can cause fever, cardiovascular pathology, allergy anaphylaxis, fibrosis, autoimmunity, etc.
- The inflammatory response has four phases: inflammatory inducers (infection or tissue damage), inflammatory sensors (mast cells and macrophages), inflammatory mediators (cytokines, chemokines, etc.) and the tissues that are affected,
- Each phase has many options that are triggered based on the type pathogen introduced,
For example bacterial pathogens trigger toll-like receptors ( TLRs ) and viral infections trigger type I interferons ( IFN ), In addition, chronic inflammatory conditions, where an inducer is not well defined, are becoming more common. These conditions are of particular interest because they coincide with other diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer,
What is the mechanism of swelling in inflammation?
Why can swelling be a bad thing? – The body always responds to an injury with a predictable inflammatory response, as the first step towards healing. Redness, heat, swelling and pain are associated with this first stage. Redness and heat are caused by increased blood flow.
- Swelling is the result of the increased movement of fluid and white blood cells into the injured area.
- The release of chemicals and the compression of nerves in the area of injury cause pain.
- The pain and swelling can keep the athlete from using the injured part, serving to protect it from further injury.
However, often times, the body’s response is excessive. “Prolonged inflammation and pain can lead to atrophy of the muscles surrounding the joint and a decreased ability to activate the muscles,” states Lisa Kluchurosky, ATC, service line administrator for the Sports Medicine Department at Nationwide Children’s Hospital.
Why does inflammation happen?
Inflammation is a normal part of the body’s defense to injury or infection, and, in this way, it is beneficial. But inflammation is damaging when it occurs in healthy tissues or lasts too long. Known as chronic inflammation, it may persist for months or years.
What are the classification of inflammation in pathophysiology?
What is the difference between acute inflammation and chronic inflammation? – There are two types of inflammation:
Acute inflammation: The response to sudden body damage, such as cutting your finger. To heal the cut, your body sends inflammatory cells to the injury. These cells start the healing process. Chronic inflammation: Your body continues sending inflammatory cells even when there is no outside danger. For example, in rheumatoid arthritis inflammatory cells and substances attack joint tissues leading to an inflammation that comes and goes and can cause severe damage to joints with pain and deformities.
What are mediators of inflammation in pathophysiology?
Central to the formation of inflammation are the inflammatory mediators, which include proteins, peptides, glycoproteins, cytokines, arachidonic acid metabolites (prostaglandins and leukotrienes), nitric oxide, and oxygen free radicals.