Ocular Inflammation And Immunology

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Ocular Inflammation And Immunology
Ocular Immunology and Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, scientific publication that welcomes the submission of original, previously unpublished manuscripts directed to ophthalmologists and vision scientists.

What is the impact factor of ocular inflammation and immunology?

The 2022-2023 Journal’s Impact IF of Ocular Immunology and Inflammation is 3.728, which is just updated in 2023.

What does an ocular immunologist do?

Training the Next Generation – Description Ocular immunology is a relatively new eye care specialty. We are committed to training the next generation of specialists to diagnose and manage common and rare diseases of the immune system that affect the eyes. Best Eye Hospital in North Carolina Where you receive your care matters. Duke University Hospital is proud of our team and the exceptional care they provide. They are why our ophthalmology program is ranked sixth in the nation and is the highest ranked program in North Carolina, according to U.S. News & World Report for 2022–2023. This page was medically reviewed on 08/12/2022 by

What is the ISSN for ocular immunology and inflammation?

ISSN 0927-3948 (Print) | Ocular immunology and inflammation | The ISSN Portal.

Is eye inflammation an autoimmune disease?

Introduction – The uvea represents the vascular organ of the eye and it is composed of the iris, ciliary body and, choroid. Autoimmune uveitis (AU) is an inflammatory process of these uveal components due to an autoimmune reaction to self-antigens or caused by an innate inflammatory reaction secondary to an external stimulus.

  1. It can present as an isolated entity or associated with a systemic autoimmune or autoinflammatory disease.
  2. Because of its proximity to other parts in the eye, inflammation can cause damage to ocular layers such as the retina and structures like the vitreous body and optic nerve.
  3. This compromise is considered one of the principal causes of preventable blindness around the world ( 1 ).

Eye inflammation can be the initial presentation in many autoimmune diseases (AD) manifesting as conjunctivitis, episcleritis, or scleritis. Diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) are commonly associated with these type of manifestations.

On the other hand, anterior uveitis typically appears as the initial manifestation in autoinflammatory diseases such as ankylosing spondilitis (AS) ( 2 ). There is a clear association described with the HLA-B27 positivity and a higher risk of presenting recurrent anterior uveitis in AS ( 3 ). Since AU is the initial presentation of some AD it is important that both ophthalmologists and rheumatologists work together to achieve a faster diagnosis and a more effective treatment for patients.

Herein we present a way to address the disease from the point of view of both fields.

What is the impact factor of European eye research?

The 2022-2023 Journal’s Impact IF of Experimental Eye Research is 3.77, which is just updated in 2023.

What immune disease affects eyes?

Description – Neuromyelitis optica is an autoimmune disorder that affects the nerves of the eyes and the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord. Autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body’s own tissues and organs.

In neuromyelitis optica, the autoimmune attack causes inflammation of the nerves, and the resulting damage leads to the signs and symptoms of the condition. Neuromyelitis optica is characterized by optic neuritis, which is inflammation of the nerve that carries information from the eye to the brain ( optic nerve ).

Optic neuritis causes eye pain and vision loss, which can occur in one or both eyes. Neuromyelitis optica is also characterized by transverse myelitis, which is inflammation of the spinal cord. The inflammation associated with transverse myelitis damages the spinal cord, causing a lesion that often extends the length of three or more bones of the spine ( vertebrae ).

In addition, myelin, which is the covering that protects nerves and promotes the efficient transmission of nerve impulses, can be damaged. Transverse myelitis causes weakness, numbness, and paralysis of the arms and legs. Other effects of spinal cord damage can include disturbances in sensations, loss of bladder and bowel control, uncontrollable hiccupping, and nausea.

In addition, muscle weakness may make breathing difficult and can cause life-threatening respiratory failure in people with neuromyelitis optica. There are two forms of neuromyelitis optica, the relapsing form and the monophasic form. The relapsing form is most common.

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This form is characterized by recurrent episodes of optic neuritis and transverse myelitis. These episodes can be months or years apart, and there is usually partial recovery between episodes. However, most affected individuals eventually develop permanent muscle weakness and vision impairment that persist even between episodes.

For unknown reasons, approximately nine times more women than men have the relapsing form. The monophasic form, which is less common, causes a single episode of neuromyelitis optica that can last several months. People with this form of the condition can also have lasting muscle weakness or paralysis and vision loss.

  • This form affects men and women equally.
  • The onset of either form of neuromyelitis optica can occur anytime from childhood to adulthood, although the condition most frequently begins in a person’s forties.
  • Approximately one-quarter of individuals with neuromyelitis optica have signs or symptoms of another autoimmune disorder such as myasthenia gravis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or Sjögren syndrome,

Some scientists believe that a condition described in Japanese patients as optic-spinal multiple sclerosis (or opticospinal multiple sclerosis) that affects the nerves of the eyes and central nervous system is the same as neuromyelitis optica.

Does the immune system know about your eyes?

Introduction and context – The eye has a special relationship with the immune system, known as immune privilege. The term was coined in the 1940s by Sir Peter Medawar, who noticed that foreign tissue grafts placed in the anterior chamber (AC) of the eye were not rejected,

While the concept of immune privilege is simple, research into its nature has revealed its highly complex character, which is still incompletely understood (reviewed in ). Multiple mechanisms combine to maintain immune privilege: (a) Physical barriers (efficient blood-retina barrier and lack of efferent lymphatics) prevent free entry and exit of cells, and even larger molecules, into and out of the eye.

The integrity of the blood-retinal barrier is routinely measured in the clinic by the fluorescein test and provides a widely accepted measure of ocular health. Nevertheless, the concept of sequestration of the eye from the immune system has recently been debated, mostly on the basis of the phenomenon known as anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID).

(See item (c) below.) (b) The inhibitory ocular microenvironment, composed of cell-bound and soluble immunosuppressive factors within the eye, inhibits the activity of immune-competent cells. The soluble factors include transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) (which can also be membrane-bound), neuropeptides such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), vasoactive intestinal peptide, and others.

Ocular resident cells directly inhibit immune cells (at least in culture) by secreting soluble factors and by contact-dependent mechanisms. Retinal glial Müller cells were the first to be identified, but their inhibitory surface molecules were not characterized,

The pigmented epithelia of the retina (RPE) and the iris/ciliary body (IPE) not only inhibit T cells, but also induce them to become T regulatory (Treg) cells, Surface-bound molecules involved in these processes include CD86, FasL, thrombospondin, and galectins, (c) Finally, the eye actively regulates systemic immune responses.

The classic example is ACAID, a unique and highly orchestrated immune response to antigens injected into the AC. It involves migration from the eye to the spleen of F4/80 + antigen-presenting cells that interact with invariant natural killer T cells and B cells and culminates in elicitation of systemic regulatory immunity through induction of CD4 + afferent and CD8 + efferent Treg cells (reviewed in ).

  1. Proteins and even cells or cellular fragments were shown to pass from the AC directly into the blood through a highly porous structure known as the trabecular meshwork.
  2. While some regard this as negating the concept of ocular antigen sequestration, elicitation of ACAID requires puncturing of the eye with a needle and perturbation of ocular integrity.

It is therefore likely that ACAID is more representative of a response to trauma rather than of a mechanism of tolerance to tissue-specific antigens contained in the healthy eye. A less controversial example is post-recovery tolerance, in which spleen cells from mice that have recovered from experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) contain regulatory activity, whose generation is dependent on the presence of eye,

  • This type of tolerance was shown to involve the melanocortin pathway and cannot be induced in melanocortin-5 receptor knockout mouse, but whether it is α-MSH from the eye that is involved has not been determined.
  • A highly successful application of the ocular immune privilege is corneal transplantation.

Corneal allografts are up to 90% successful without tissue matching and without systemic immunosuppressive therapy, On the downside, however, ocular immune privilege may leave the eye vulnerable to autoimmunity by impeding peripheral tolerance to eye-specific antigens sequestered behind the blood-retinal barrier,

Does your immune system fight eye infections?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The ocular immune system protects the eye from infection and regulates healing processes following injuries. The interior of the eye lacks lymph vessels but is highly vascularized, and many immune cells reside in the uvea, including mostly macrophages, dendritic cells, and mast cells.

  1. These cells fight off intraocular infections, and intraocular inflammation can manifest as uveitis (including iritis ) or retinitis,
  2. The cornea of the eye is immunologically a very special tissue.
  3. Its constant exposure to the exterior world means that it is vulnerable to a wide range of microorganisms while its moist mucosal surface makes the cornea particularly susceptible to attack.
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At the same time, its lack of vasculature and relative immune separation from the rest of the body makes immune defense difficult. Lastly, the cornea is a multifunctional tissue. It provides a large part of the eye’s refractive power, meaning it has to maintain remarkable transparency, but must also serve as a barrier to keep pathogens from reaching the rest of the eye, similar to function of the dermis and epidermis in keeping underlying tissues protected.

What autoimmune disease has inflamed eye?

Uveitis happens when the eye becomes red and swollen (inflamed). Inflammation is the body’s response to illness or infection. Most cases of uveitis are linked to a problem with the immune system (the body’s defence against infection and illness). Rarely, uveitis may happen without the eye becoming red or swollen.

What is the root cause of eye inflammation?

What is uveitis? – Uveitis is inflammation inside your eye. Inflammation usually happens when your immune system is fighting an infection. Sometimes uveitis means your immune system is fighting an eye infection — but it can also happen when your immune system attacks healthy tissue in your eyes.

  1. Uveitis can cause problems like pain, redness, and vision loss.
  2. Uveitis damages the part of the eye called the uvea — but it often affects other parts of the eye, too.
  3. Sometimes uveitis goes away quickly, but it can come back.
  4. And sometimes it’s a chronic (long-term) condition.
  5. It can affect 1 eye or both eyes.

Uveitis can cause vision loss if it isn’t treated — so it’s important to see your eye doctor right away if you have symptoms.

What CRP level is uveitis?

Table 2 – Concordance and discrepancies in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein in patients with uveitis

Total N  = 174 Concordant results ESR and CRP a Discrepant results ESR and CRP a
CRP < 10 mg/L and ESR < 20 mm/h N  = 91 ESR ≥ 20 mm/h and CRP ≥ 10 mg/L N  = 33 ESR ≥ 20 mm/h but CRP < 10 mg/L N  = 40 CRP ≥ 10 mg/L but ESR < 20 mm/h N  = 10
Age at onset of uveitis (years) Mean (±SD) 45.8 (± 17.1) 43.1 (± 17.3) 5.9 (± 15.6) 51.7 (± 15.9) 46.6 (± 20.7)
Localization
 Anterior uveitis 33/174 (19%) 16/33 (48%) 8/33 (24%) 7/33 (21%) 2/33 (6%)
 Intermediate uveitis 2/174 (1%) 1/2 (50%) 1/2 (50%)
 Posterior uveitis 45/174 (26%) 29/45 (64%) 5/45 (11%) 8/45 (18%) 3/45 (7%)
 Panuveitis 86/174 (49%) 44/86 (51%) 17/86 (20%) 21/86 (24%) 4/86 (5%)
 Scleritis 8/174 (5%) 1/8 (13%) 3/8 (38%) 3/8 (38%) 1/8 (13%)
Laterality
 Unilateral 83/174 (48%) 43/83 (52%) 15/83(18%) 20/83 (24%) 5/83 (6%)
 Bilateral 91/174 (52%) 48/91 (53%) 18/91 (20%) 20/91 (22%) 5/91 (5%)
Gender
 Females 96/174 (55%) 50/96 (52%) 16/96 (17%) 25/96 (26%) 5/96 (5%)
 Males 78/174 (45%) 41/78 (53%) 17/78 (22%) 15/78 (19%) 5/78 (6%)
Race
 Caucasian 110/174 (63%) 59/110 (54%) 22/110 (20%) 23/110 (21%) 6/110 (5%)
 Non-Caucasian 64/174 (37%) 32/64 (50%) 11/64 (17%) 17/64 (27%) 4/64 (6%)
Non-infectious systemic disease 59/174 (34%) 28/59 (47%) 15/59 (25%) 11/59 (19%) 5/59 (8%)
 Sarcoidosis b 24/59 (41%) 10/24 (42%) 6/24 (25%) 7/24 (29%) 1/24 (4%)
 HLA B27-associated uveitis 10/59 (17%) 6/10 (60%) 2/10 (20%) 2/10 (20%)
 Miscellaneous c 25/ 59 (42%) 12/25 (48%) 7/25 (28%) 4/25 (16%) 2/25 (8%)
Infectious 38/174 (22%) 17/38 (45%) 4/38 (11%) 14/38 (37%) 3/38 (8%)
 Toxoplasmosis 11/38 (29%) 9/11 (82%) 2/11 (18%)
 ;Endogenous endophthalmitis 7/38 (18%) 1/7 (14%) 2/7 (29%) 1/7(14%) 3/7 (43%)
 ;Miscellaneous d 20/38 (53%) 7/20 (35%) 2/20 (10%) 11/20 (55%)
Established clinical entity e 24/174 (14%) 13/24 (54%) 6/24 (25%) 4/24 (17%) 1/24 (4%)
Unknown 53/174 (30%) 33/53 (62%) 8/53 (15%) 11/53 (21%) 1/53 (2%)

The median ESR and CRP of patients with uveitis of established cause were higher than the median ESR and CRP of patients with unknown uveitis (17.0 mm/h, range 1–120 mm/h vs.11.0 mm/h, range 1–140 mm/h for ESR and 3.4 mg/L, range 0.4–262.0 mg/L vs.1.9 mg/L, range 0.3–229.0 mg/L for CRP; P  = 0.015 for both, Mann-Whitney U test).

How do you measure eye inflammation?

When you visit an eye specialist (ophthalmologist), they will likely conduct a complete eye exam and gather a thorough health history. The eye examination usually involves the following:

Assessment of vision (with your glasses if you normally wear them) and the response of your pupils to light. Tonometry. A tonometry exam measures the pressure inside your eye (intraocular pressure). Numbing eyedrops may be used for this test. A slit-lamp examination. A slit lamp is a microscope that magnifies and illuminates the front of your eye with an intense line of light. This evaluation is necessary to identify microscopic inflammatory cells in the front of the eye. Ophthalmoscopy. Also known as funduscopy, this exam involves widening (dilating) the pupil with eye drops and shining a bright light into the eye to examine the back of the eye.

Your doctor also may recommend:

Color photography of the inside of the eye (retina). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. This test maps the retina and choroid to reveal swelling in these layers. Fluorescein angiography or indocyanine green angiography. These tests require placement of an intravenous (IV) catheter in a vein in your arm in order to give a dye. This dye will reach the blood vessels in the eyes and allow photographs of swollen blood vessels inside the eyes. Analysis of aqueous or vitreous fluid from the eye. Blood tests. Imaging tests, radiography, computed tomography (CT) or Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.

If the ophthalmologist thinks an underlying condition may be the cause of your uveitis, you may be referred to another doctor for a general medical examination and laboratory tests. Sometimes, it’s difficult to find a specific cause for uveitis. Even if a specific cause is not identified, uveitis can still be treated successfully.

In the majority of cases, identifying a cause for the uveitis does not lead to a cure. It is still necessary to use some form of treatment to control the swelling. If uveitis is caused by an underlying condition, treatment may focus on that specific condition. Usually the treatment for uveitis is the same regardless of the cause, as long as the cause is not infectious.

The goal of treatment is to reduce the swelling in your eye, as well as in other parts of the body, if present. In some cases, treatment may be necessary for months to years. Several treatment options are available.

Who is the author of ocular immunology and inflammation?

Laura Lorena García-López et al.

Can an eye exam detect autoimmune disease?

Why is it important to have your eyes checked regularly? – Although beauty is in the eye of the beholder, health is also in the eye of the beholder. The eye and its surrounding tissues provide a unique view into the health of an individual. Since the eyes are “see-through”, these remarkable organs provide direct views of blood vessels, nerves and tissue via examination.

What rare autoimmune diseases affect the eyes?

Cogan syndrome is a rare autoimmune disease that affects the eyes and inner ears. Symptoms of the syndrome include irritation and pain in the eyes, decreased vision, hearing loss, and vertigo. Other symptoms may include joint or muscle pain or inflammation of the blood vessels.

What is the most common Eye Colour in Europe?

Brown – Light brown iris can be found in Europe, West Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and among the Americas. Almost all mammals have brown or darkly-pigmented irises. In humans, brown is by far the most common eye color, with approximately 79% of people in the world having it.

  1. Brown eyes result from a relatively high concentration of melanin in the stroma of the iris, which causes light of both shorter and longer wavelengths to be absorbed.
  2. Dark brown eyes are dominant in humans.
  3. In many parts of the world, it is nearly the only iris color present.
  4. Brown eyes are common in Europe, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, West Asia, Oceania, Africa and the Americas,

Light or medium-pigmented brown eyes can also be commonly found in South Europe, among the Americas, and parts of Central Asia, West Asia and South Asia,

What is the impact factor current opinion in ophthalmology?

The 2022-2023 Journal’s Impact IF of Current Opinion in Ophthalmology is 4.299, which is just updated in 2023.

What is the impact factor of current eye research?

The 2022-2023 Journal’s Impact IF of Current Eye Research is 2.555, which is just updated in 2023.

What is the impact factor of PNAS Immunology?

Journal Metrics – Eigenfactor and Article Influence Metrics

2021 Metrics
Eigenfactor Score 0.74016
Normalized Eigenfactor 158.17337
Article Influence Score 4.654

Learn about these metrics and how they are calculated. Scopus Metrics

2021 Metrics
CiteScore 18.1
CiteScore Percentile 95%
CiteScore Rank in Multidisciplinary Sciences 6/120
SJR 4.184
SNIP 3.063

Learn about CiteScore, SJR, and SNIP metrics and how they are calculated Journal Impact Factor and Associated Metrics

2021 Metrics
Impact Factor 12.779
Ranking in Multidisciplinary Sciences 9/73
Impact Factor without Self-Cites 12.526
Five-Year Impact Factor 13.450
Total Cites 860,450
Immediacy Index 2.813
Cited Half-Life 10.4 years
Journal Citation Indicator (JCI) 2.61

Learn about these metrics and how they are calculated. Learn about changes to calculations for the Journal Impact Factor and related metrics for 2021. Citation Distribution The Journal Impact Factor is a journal-level metric that does not adequately represent the distribution of citations among individual articles in the journal. Google Scholar Metrics

2021 Metrics
H5-Index 256
H5-Median 364
Rank in Health and Medical Sciences (General) ) 4
Rank in Health & Medical Sciences 5
Rank in Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (General) 4
Rank in Life & Earth Sciences 5

Learn about these metrics and how they are calculated.

What is the impact factor of the Journal of Immunology?

According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2021 impact factor of 5.422.

What is the impact factor of Optica Applicata?

The 2022-2023 Journal’s Impact IF of Optica Applicata is 0.505, which is just updated in 2023.

What is the impact factor of PLoS Immunology?

The 2022-2023 Journal’s Impact IF of PLoS Pathogens is 7.464, which is just updated in 2023.