Pad Dry Cure Method
The process is accomplished by padding fabric through a water solution of the three components to a wet pickup of about 75%, drying at moderate temperature, and curing at an elevated temperature.
- 1 What is the pad dry cure technique?
- 2 What is the padding method of dyeing?
- 3 Which finish is applied to fabric by padding followed by curing and drying?
- 4 What is padding in textiles?
- 5 What is wet or dry cure?
- 5.1 What are 3 types of textile finishes?
- 5.2 What are the 2 main types of finishing processes for fabric?
- 6 Can carpet pad be dried?
- 7 What temperature should dry cure be?
- 8 How long does dry curing last?
- 9 What is padding mangle used for?
What is the pad dry cure technique?
5.5 Application methods – The most common application method for easy-care and durable press finishes is a pad–dry–cure procedure. In this process, the crosslinking reactant, catalyst, softener, and other components are dried on the fabric prior to the crosslinking reaction that takes place during the curing step.
- If the finish is cured immediately after drying, while the fabric is still in an open width configuration, the finish is referred to as a ‘pre-cure’ finish, the finish is cured prior to garment manufacture.
- Textiles with a pre-cure finish are most suited for fabrics and apparel that require wrinkle resistance, such as sheeting, shirting and casual trousers.
For fabrics that require crease retention, such as trousers and pleated skirts, the durable press finish is only dried by the fabric manufacturer and cured after the garment has been made and creased appropriately. This finish is referred to a ‘post-cure’ finish or ‘delay cure’ finish, the finish is cured after the garment has been manufactured.
In the special cases where entire garments are to be treated with a durable press finish, the finishing chemicals can be sprayed in exact doses onto the garments before the final shape is formed and then cured.19 Also impregnation by dipping (garment dipping) or in a tumbler, followed by centrifugation, drying and pressing or ironing is common.
The made-up garments are finally suspended on hangers in a curing oven. Some advantages and disadvantages of these application methods are summarised in Table 5.6, Table 5.6, Comparison of finish application methods
|High process productivity
|Poor crease retention
|Excellent crease retention
|Curing equipment needed by garment manufacturer
|Application and curing equipment needed by garment processor
Several variations on the conventional pre-cure process have been explored, including short one-step flash-dry-curing (shock condensation) of cellulosic fabrics with the risk of crosslinker migration during the quick drying. The traditional pad–dry–cure method is a ‘dry’ curing process, i.e.
- All of the water has been removed from the fabric prior to the actual crosslinking reaction.
- It is also possible to crosslink cellulose in a ‘wet’ process.
- Fabric padded at ~ 80 % wet pickup with the finishing chemicals is wrapped in plastic film and batched at room temperature for about 24 hours before washing and drying.
The water content of the cellulose fibres during the crosslinking step greatly affects the final fabric properties as is seen in Table 5.7, Table 5.7, Effects of different curing conditions on fabric properties
|‘Dry’ curing, short times at high temperatures
|‘Wet’ curing, long times at low temperatures
|Loss of tear strength and abrasion resistance
|Good tear strength and abrasion resistance
|High dry crease recovery angle
|Lower dry crease recovery angle
|Lower wet crease recovery angle
|High wet crease recovery angle
Normally a high dry crease recovery angle is preferred because the appearance of the dry textile is more important than that of the wet one. Between these two extremes is the ‘moist’ cure, a 5–20 hour room temperature reaction with ~ 6 % above normal moisture regain.
The fabric properties of the ‘moist’ cure are a good compromise between the extremes of the ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ processes. The ‘moist’ cure is preferred when high tear strength of the finished fabric is required, but controlling the critical moisture level can be very difficult. These difficulties with moisture control are overcome in a continuous process using a hot flue.
There the residual moisture of the fabric is easily regulated by the content of steam in the air at 6–10 %, where the best compromise of the easy-care factor (ECF) and the strength loss factor (SLF) is realised. ECF includes dry and wet crease recovery angles and the Monsanto values.
What is the padding method of dyeing?
4.2.4 Principles of reactive dye application – The methods by which reactive dyes can be applied are as follows: (i) Exhaust method (on jigger/winch) (ii) Padding method, The exhaust technique is the most common method for application of reactive dyes as it is resistant to small changes of system variables.
It comprises two steps: exhaustion and fixation. During exhaustion the dyes are exhausted from the dyebath and come into the fibre phase. High electrolyte concentration is required to have adequate exhaustion of the dye. Varoius techniques of cationisation of cotton for saltless dyeing are reviewed in detail by Chattopadhyay (2001),
One method of salt-free reactive dyeing of cotton using 1,2-dichloroethane followed by amination with a suitable amino compound has been reported by Chattopadhyay et al, (2007), The fixation of the dye takes place in the presence of an alkali. After the addition of the alkali, the migration of the dyes ceases and they start reacting either with the fibre or with the water molecules.
- After the fixation, the treated material is thoroughly rinsed to wash off the loose unfixed dyes.
- The padding method has several advantages over the exhaust method (Janakiraman and Narasingha, 1977) such as: • lower consumption of steam, electricity, dyes and chemicals • higher productivity • high degree of fastness • improved appearance.
Various sequences possible in this technique are as follows: (i) Pad-batch-wash (ii) Pad-dry-pad (alkali)-batch-wash (iii) Pad-dry-jigger develop-wash (iv) Pad-jigger develop (wet-on-wet)-wash (v) Pad-dry-pad (alkali)-steam-wash (vi) Pad-dry-cure-wash (vii) Pad-dry-hot alkali pad-wash.
Which finish is applied to fabric by padding followed by curing and drying?
Textile Finishing: Beautification Process of Fabric – Golam Mawla Daffodil International University Department of Textile Engineering Email: [email protected] Introduction: Textile Finishing is a process used in manufacturing of fiber, fabric, or clothing.
In order to impart the required functional properties to the fiber or fabric, it is customary to subject the material to different type of physical and chemical treatments. For example wash and wear finish for a cotton fabric is necessary to make it crease free or wrinkle free. In a similar way, mercerizing, singeing, flame retardant, water repellent, water proof, antistatic finish, peach finish etc are some of the important finishes applied to textile fabric.
Textile Finishing: Textile finishing is a term commonly applied to different process that the textile material under go after pretreatment, dyeing or printing for final embellishment to enhance their attractiveness and sale appeal as well as for comfort and usefulness. Fig: Textile finished fabric Objects of Finishing: The aim of finishing is to render textile goods fit for their purpose or end use. Besides that, finishing can be done for achieving the following purposes- a) To improve fabric attractiveness.
- By modification of fabric appearance (Calendaring, Optical brightening)
- By altering fabric handle (Softening, Stiffening)
- Control of fabric dimension (Sanforizing, Compacting)
b) To improve service ability.
- Protection of fabric (Flame proofing, Water proofing)
- Improved performance (Water repellency, Raising)
- Easy care properties (Resin finish, Crease recovery)
Classification of Finishing: Fig: Classification of Finishing Generally there are two types of finishing. Those are
Physical / Mechanical Finishing: Mechanical Finishes usually involved specific physical treatment to a fabric surface to cause a change in fabric appearance. This is also known as dry finish. It’s two types-
- Temporary : A finish which is not stable and goes off after the first wash is known as temporary finish and these finishes disappears during subsequent washing and usage (Calendaring, Embossing, Starching, Softening etc).
- Permanent/Durable: If the finishing effect in the fabric does not disappear and remains unaffected through all the conditions of wear and washing treatments, then the finish is said to be permanent finish (Raising, Sanforizing finishing, etc).
Describe Some Mechanical Finishing: Calendaring: Calendaring is defined as the modification of the surface of a fabric by the action of heat and pressure. The finish is obtained by passing the fabric between heated rotating rollers (Smooth or Engraved) when both speed of rotation and pressure applied are variable. Fig: Calendaring fabric Objects of Calendaring:
- To improve the fabric handle and to impart a smooth silky touch to the fabric.
- To compress the fabric and reduce its thickness.
- To reduce the air permeability by closing the threads.
- To increase the luster.
- To reduce the yarn slippage.
- Surface patterning by embossing.
Compacting: Durable finish imparted on man-made fibres and knitted fabrics by employing heat and pressure to shrink them to produce a crêpey and bulky texture. Fig: Compacting fabric Sanforizing or Pre Shrinking: Sanforizing is a process where by the fabric is run through a sanforizer; a machine that has drums filled with hot steam. This process is done to control the shrinkage of the fabric. The fabric is given an optimum dimensional stability by applying mechanic forces and water vapour. Fig: Sanforizing machine Sueding: This process is carried out by means of a roller coated with abrasive material. Sueding is a mechanical finishing process in which a fabric is abraded on one or both sides to raise or create a fibrous surface. This fibrous surface improves the fabric appearance, gives the fabric a softer, fuller hand, and can mask fabric construction and subdue coloration. Fig: Sueding fabric Raising or Napping: The raising of the fiber on the face of the goods by means of teasels or rollers covered with card clothing (steel wires) that are about one inch in height. Action by either method raises the protruding fibres and causes the finished fabric to provide greater warmth to the wearer, makes the cloth more compact, causes the fabric to become softer in hand or smoother in feel. Fig: Raising finishing Stentering Machine: A machine or apparatus for stretching or stentering fabrics. The purpose of the stenter machine is to bringing the length and width to pre determine dimensions and also for heat setting and it is used for applying finishing chemicals and also shade variation is adjusted. Fig: Stentering machine Functions of Stenter Machines:
- Heat setting is done by the stenter for lycra fabric, synthetic and blended fabric.
- Width of the fabric is controlled by the stenter.
- Finishing chemical apply on fabric by the stenter.
Shearing: Shearing is an important preparatory stage in the processing of cotton cloth. The objective of “Shearing” is to remove fibers and loose threads from the surface of the fabric, thus improving surface finish. Fig: Shearing fabric Chemical Finishing: The finishes applied by means of chemicals of different origins, a fabric can receive properties. Chemical finishes are usually applied to fabric by padding followed by curing and drying. These are also called as wet finishes. Chemical is used for it. It’s also two types
- Temporary : A finish which is not stable and goes off after the first wash is known as temporary finish (Starching, Weighting, Softening etc.)
- Permanent/Durable: Permanent finishes usually involve a chemical change in fibre structure and will not change or alter throughout the life of a fabric(Mercerizing, Resin, Water proof, Fire proof etc Soil Release)
Describe Some Chemical Finishing: Softening: Softening treatment is one of the most important chemical after treatments in the textile industry. Softening is carried out when the softness characteristics of a certain fabric must be improved, always carefully considering the composition and properties of the substrate. Fig: Softening treatment Elastomeric Finishes: Elastomeric finishes are also referred to as stretch or elastic finishes and are particularly important for knitwear. These finishes are currently achieved only with silicone-based products. The main effect is durable elasticity, because not only must extensibility be enhanced, but recovery from deformation is of crucial importance. Fig: Elastomeric finishes Crease Resistant or Crease Proofing: Crease Resistant Finishes are applied to cellulose fibres (cotton, linen and rayon) that wrinkle easily. Permanent Press fabrics have crease resistant finishes that resist wrinkling and also help to maintain creases and pleats throughout wearing and cleaning. Fig: Crease Resistant Finishes Anti-microbial finishes: With the increasing use synthetic fibbers for carpets and other materials in public places, anti-microbial finishes have assumed importance. Anti microbial finish Eco-friendly anti microbial finishing agent for cotton fabrics & Garments.
- Useful for eliminating bacterial growth due to sweat.
- Soil Release Finishes: Prevent soil and stains from being attracted to fabrics.
- Such finishes may be resistant to oil-boure or water-bourne soil and stains or both.
- These finishes attract water to the surface of fibres during cleaning and help remove soil.
Soil release finish increases the hydrophilicity of the material and increases wetability. Peach finish: Subjecting the fabric (either cotton or its synthetic blends) to emery wheels, makes the surface velvet like. This is a special finish mostly used in garments. Fig: Peach finish Anti Pilling: Anti pilling finish reduces the forming of pills on fabrics and products made considerable strength, flexibility and resistance to impact. Anti pilling finish is based on the use of chemical treatments which aim to suppress the ability of fibers to slacken and also to reduce the mechanical resistance of synthetic fiber. Fig: Anti pilling finish Flame Retardant Treatment: They are applied to combustible fabrics used in children’s sleepwear, carpets and curtains and prevent highly flammable textiles from bursting into flame. Polyester fabrics can be made flame resistant by treatment with an aqueous emulsion of xylene soluble 2,3-dibromopropyl phosphate in a pad-cure sequence. Fig: Flame Retardant Treatment Oil and Water Proofing: Waterproof Finishes allows no water to penetrate, but tend to be uncomfortable because they trap moisture to the body. Recently, fabrics have been developed that are waterproof, yet are also breathable that is more comfortable. Fig: Waterproof Finishes Water-Repellent Finishes: Water-repellent finishes resist wetting. If the fabric becomes very wet, water will eventually pass through. Applied to fabrics found in raincoats, all-weather coats, hats, capes, umbrellas and shower curtains. Fig: Water-repellent finishes Conclusion: Finishing is most efficiently carried out on fabrics. Now a day it’s apply all types of fabrics. Today it also applies on different types of garments. So, it’s the very important process and the final treatment process for textiles materials.
Founder & Editor of Textile Learner. He is a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. He is working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.
What is padding in textiles?
Padding is thin cushioned material sometimes added to clothes. Padding may also be referred to as batting when used as a layer in lining quilts or as a packaging or stuffing material.
How long does it take for padding to dry?
Ideally, the carpet and the padding need to be completely dry within forty-eight hours to protect your home from mold growth. It takes time for the carpet to dry. So, the quicker you get started on this, the better.
What is wet or dry cure?
So what’s the difference? – Breaking it down, there are two main types of curing: dry cure, and wet cure. Dry cure involves rubbing the outside of the meat with a special blend of salt and seasonings and allowing the meat to rest in this mixture for a long period of time.
- No water is added in this process – the meat is simply left to cure for a full, robust flavour.
- Dry curing is the older and more traditional method of the two, and the lack of added liquid means there is less shrinkage in the pan when cooked.
- Wet cure differs in that the salt and seasoning mixture is combined with water.
The meat is then immersed in the liquid and again is left for some time. Also known as brining, this method helps to preserve both the meat and the moisture of the final product.
What is pad dry cure method for cotton?
The process is accomplished by padding fabric through a water solution of the three components to a wet pickup of about 75%, drying at moderate temperature, and curing at an elevated temperature.
Which chemical is used for padding?
OTC is a specialty product with high viscosity for improvement of colour value during inkJet printing on all types of fabric with disperse, reactive and acid. OTC is used in padding before ink-Jet printing. It has high molecular weight which increases the localized viscosity on ink, thereby avoiding bleeding and spreading of prints.
What is padding made of?
Foam Padding Companies | Foam Padding Suppliers Foam padding is low-density flexible foam used in a wide range of applications such as upholstery, bedding, packaging, protective sports wear and more. Typical materials used in the fabrication of different types of foam include polyester, polyether, polystyrene, polyurethane, polyethylene and vinyl.
- Foam Padding Foam is a lightweight, versatile, polymer based material used in a number of different industries and applications; one of its biggest applications is foam padding.
- Padding made from foam material can be used virtually for any industry or product that requires extra lining for protection or comfort.
Arlington, TX | The applications for foam fabricating are only limited by one’s imagination; that is our slogan at American Excelsior. We are a foam supplier who offers many different foam cushions & foam padding for over a dozen industries. $$$ Painesville, OH | For innovative and cost-effective fabricated foam packaging, American Foam Products should be your preferred vendor! We utilize a wide range of foams and other materials, including polyethylene, polyurethane, crosslink polyethylene, expanded polystyrene and plastic corrugated, as well as a broad range of manufacturing services and capabilities.
- Garland, TX | Our highly advanced foam solution are ideal for a wide range of applications.
- We take your satisfaction very seriously which is why we offer custom services to accurately manufacture all of your products. $$ St.
- Louis Park, MN | Since 1992, Flextech has delivered innovative, custom engineered foam solutions.
We combine our engineering and design services with our unique foam lamination, fabrication, and thermoforming capabilities, to provide quality foam components to a diverse customer base. Our customers include OEM’s in the medical, industrial, military, aerospace and consumer products markets.
- We invite you to.
- Newton Falls, OH | At Luxaire, we realize the importance of customer care.
- No matter how challenging the project, we fabricate our foam with the utmost precision to get it right the first time.
- Available foams include rigid, semi-rigid, open-cell, and outdoor foam.
- We are capable of performing detailed fabrication with our cutting-edge CAD production equipment.
$$$ Madison, WI | Wisconsin Foam is a foam supplier that serves a multitude of applications & industries with highly targeted, cost-effective precision flexible foam solutions— no matter the size or complexity. $$$ Evansville, IN | Here at Thrust Industries we provide die cut foam that comes in a variety of shapes and configurations. Foam Padding – American Excelsior Company Foam is described as open cell foam or closed cell foam depending on the arrangement of the material cells. Closed cell foam is made up of sealed and unbroken cells or bubbles that are in a tight configuration resulting in dense foam that provides a strong surface.
- Open cell foam is more flexible as the cells of the material are broken, or open.
- It is softer and less dense and is commonly used to make padding for a number of furniture applications such as barstools, carpets, benches and camping pads.
- Specific types of foam are chosen according to their different properties and according to the requirements of the application.
is also referred to as PE, and is rigid foam constructed through an extrusion process. Beds, couches, chairs and other furniture all use PE as primary structural padding. Polyethylene foam on the other hand is used widely in packing cases to provide support and protection for fragile goods.
- It is extremely lightweight and durable, and has excellent buoyancy.
- It is also used in a number of flotation devices and nautical equipment.
- Padding made from foam is lightweight, shatter proof and wear and tear resistant.
- It is easy to fabricate into the required shapes and dimensions for an application, and offers a cost-effective padding solution.
It can also be used for insulation and to minimize effects of vibrations, in seals and gaskets, as elastomeric wheels and tires, for rotational transfer molding cores and expansion joint filler in masonry and concrete applications. Another advantage to using foam padding, especially closed cell foam padding, is that it is impervious to mold, moisture and bacterial growth and is able to be used in outdoor applications for a long time without breaking down or becoming unsanitary.
- The resistance of foam to absorbing water is a property which ensures its usefulness in applications such as medical foam or filter foam.
- Unlike other materials which may trap bacteria and water, closed cell foam resists it, thus preventing moisture build up and bacterial growth over time.
- Foam materials are easy to fabricate and can come in almost any size, thickness and shape.
They can also be fabricated in a wide variety of colors. : Foam Padding Companies | Foam Padding Suppliers
What are 3 types of textile finishes?
Some of the most common types of fabric finishes include: functional finishes, performance finishes, chemical or wet finishes, and mechanical finishes.
What is the difference between drying and curing in textile?
Summary – Curing vs Drying – Paints are any pigmented liquids, liquefiable, or solid mastic compositions that can convert into a solid film after the application to a substrate in a thin layer. The key difference between curing and drying is that in curing, heat is applied or generated to evaporate the water of the solvents in ink, which leaves the pigments behind on the substrate to provide color, whereas drying involves the solidification of the ink from liquid to solid.
What are the 2 main types of finishing processes for fabric?
Last Updated on 05/02/2023 What is Textile Finishing? Textile Finishing is a process used in manufacturing of fiber, fabric, or clothing. In order to impart the required functional properties to the fiber or fabric, it is customary to subject the material to different type of physical and chemical treatments. Fig: Textile Finishing Process Types of Textile Finishing: Finishing comprises final process in the textile processing sequence to improve the appearance, hand-feel or other aesthetics of the textiles or to add any extra functionality such as water repellency or flame retardancy, etc. Fig: Classification of textile finishing There are two broad categories of finishing:
- Chemical finishing
- Mechanical finishing
1. Mechanical Finishing: Involving the application of physical principles such as friction, temperature, pressure, tension and many others. Commonly used mechanical finishes include calendaring, compressive shrinkage / Sanforizing, raising, emerizing / sueding / peaching, shearing / cropping.
Calendering A process of passing cloth between rollers (or “calendars”), usually under carefully controlled heat and pressure, to produce a variety of surface textures or effects in fabric such as compact, smooth, supple, flat and glazed. The process involves passing fabric through a calendar in which a highly polished, usually heated, steel bowl rotates at a higher surface speed than the softer (e.g.
cotton or paper packed) bowl against which it works, thus producing a glaze on the face of the fabric that is in contact with the steel bowl. The friction ratio is the ratio of the peripheral speed of the faster steel bowl to that of the slower bowl and is normally in the range 1.5 to 3.0.
- The normal woven fabric surface is not flat, particularly in ordinary quality plain weave fabrics, because of the round shape of the yarns, and interlacings of warp and weft at right angles to each other.
- In such fabrics it is more often seen that even when the fabric is quite regular, it is not flat.
During calendering, the yarns in the fabric are squashed into a flattened elliptical shape; the intersections are made to close-up between the yarns. This causes the fabric surface to become flat and compact. The improved planeness of surface in turn improves the glaze of the fabric.
The calender machines may have several rollers, some of which can be heated and varied in speed, so that in addition to pressure a polishing action can be exerted to increase luster. Compacting Durable finish imparted on man-made fibers and knitted fabrics by employing heat and pressure to shrink them to produce a crêpey and bulky texture.
Embossing This particular type of calendering process allows engraving a simple pattern on the fabric. To produce a pattern in relief by passing fabric through a calendar in which a heated metal bowl engraved with the pattern works against a relatively soft bowl, built up of compressed paper or cotton on a metal centre.
- Sueding Sueding finishing process is carried out by means of a roller coated with abrasive material.
- The fabric has a much softer hand and an improved insulating effect thanks to the fiber end pulled out of the fabric surface.
- Raising or Napping The raising of the fiber on the face of the goods by means of teasels or rollers covered with card clothing (steel wires) that are about one inch in height.
Action by either method raises the protruding fibers and causes the finished fabric to provide greater warmth to the wearer makes the cloth more compact, causes the fabric to become softer in hand or smoother in feel; increase durability and covers the minute areas between the interlacing of the warp and the filling.
Napped fabrics include blankets, flannel, unfinished worsted, and several types of coatings and some dress goods. Other names for napping are Gigging, Genapping, Teaseled, Raised. Wool Glazing This is done on a special machine, which is used to perform functional finishing on wool fabrics after raising.
Shearing Shearing is an important preparatory stage in the processing of cotton cloth. The objective of “Shearing” is to remove fibers and loose threads from the surface of the fabric, thus improving surface finish. Stabilization A term usually referring to fabrics in which the dimensions have been set by a suitable preshrinking operation Decating Also called Decatizing.
A finishing process applied to fabrics to set the material, enhance luster and improve the hand. Fabric wound onto a perforated roller is immersed in hot water or has steam blown through it. Steaming and Heat setting It is done by using high temperatures to stabilize fabrics containing polyester, nylon, or triacetate but not effective on cotton or rayon.it may be performed in fabric form or garment form it may cause shade variation from side-to-side if done prior to dyeing; may change the shade if done after dyeing Sanforizing or Pre Shrinking Sanforizing is a process whereby the fabric is run through a sanforizer; a machine that has drums filled with hot steam.
This process is done to control the shrinkage of the fabric. The fabric is given an optimum dimensional stability by applying mechanic forces and water vapor. Fulling: The structure, bulk and shrinkage of wool are modified by applying heat combined with friction and compression.2.
Chemical Finishing The finishes applied by means of chemicals of different origins, a fabric can receive properties otherwise impossible to obtain with mechanical means. Commonly used chemical finishes include softening, stiffening / hand-building, easycare / wrinkle-recovery / durable-press, water / oil repellent, soil repellent, soil release, flame retardant, anti-slip, anti-static, anti-pilling, anti-microbial, elastomeric, UV protection, insect resistant / moth protection, bio-polishing, fragrance, moisture management, temperature adaptability, and finishes to improve color fastness of the dyed or printed fabrics.
Some requirements of chemical finishes include:
- Suitability of the finish for all fibers in all forms
- Desired durability of the finishing effect
- No loss of desirable fabric properties, e.g. appearance, hand-feel, strength, comfort, abrasion resistance
- No yellowing of the white finished fabric
- No change in color of the dyed or printed fabric
- Safe to use and simple to apply on the fabric
- Good storage stability and shelf life
- Good compatibility with other ingredients of the finishing formulation
- Easy correction in case of faulty finish application
- Sustainability and no harmful impact on the environment
Factors that are commonly considered for proper formulation of the chemical finishes include:
- The type of textile being treated (fiber type, yarn type, fabric construction)
- The performance requirement of the finishes (the extent of desired effect and its durability)
- The cost to benefit ratio
- Limitations imposed by the available machinery or environmental issues
- Compatibility of various components of the formulation
Softening Softening is carried out when the softness characteristics of a certain fabric must be improved, always carefully considering the composition and properties of the substrate. Elastomeric finishes Elastomeric finishes are also referred to as stretch or elastic finishes and are particularly important for knitwear.
- These finishes are currently achieved only with silicone-based products.
- The main effect is durable elasticity, because not only must extensibility be enhanced, but recovery from deformation is of crucial importance.
- After all stresses and disturbing forces have been released, the fabric should return to its original shape.
Crease resistant or Crease proofing Crease Resistant Finishes are applied to cellulose fibers (cotton, linen and rayon) that wrinkle easily. Permanent Press fabrics have crease resistant finishes that resist wrinkling and also help to maintain creases and pleats throughout wearing and cleaning.
Soil release finishes These finishes attract water to the surface of fibers during cleaning and help remove soil. Flame retardant treatment Are applied to combustible fabrics used in children’s sleepwear, carpets and curtains and prevent highly flammable textiles from bursting into flame. Peach finish Subjecting the fabric (either cotton or its synthetic blends) to emery wheels, makes the surface velvet like.
This is a special finish mostly used in garments. Anti Pilling Pilling is a phenomenon exhibited by fabrics formed from spun yarns (yarns made from staple fibers). Pills are masses of tangled fibers that appear on fabric surfaces during wear or laundering.
Fabrics with pills have an unsightly appearance and an unpleasant handle. Loose fibers are pulled from yarns and are formed into spherical balls by the frictional forces of abrasion. These balls of tangled fibers are held to the fabric surface by longer fibers called anchor fibers. Anti pilling finish reduces the forming of pills on fabrics and knitted products made from yarns with synthetic-fiber content, which are inclined to pilling by their considerable strength, flexibility and resistance to impact.
Anti pilling finish is based on the use of chemical treatments which aim to suppress the ability of fibers to slacken and also to reduce the mechanical resistance of synthetic fiber. Non slip finish A finish applied to a yarn to make it resistant to slipping and sliding when in contact with another yarn.
The main effect of non-slip finishes is to increase the adhesion between fibers and yarns regardless of fabric construction, the generic term for these finishes would be fiber and yarn bonding finishes. Other terms that can be used include anti-slip, non-shift and slip-proofing finishes. Stain and Soil resistant finishes Prevent soil and stains from being attracted to fabrics.
Such finishes may be resistant to oil-boure or water-bourne soil and stains or both. Stain and soil resistant finishes can be applied to fabrics used in clothing and furniture. Scotchgard is a stain and soil resistant finish commonly applied to carpet and furniture.
- Oil and Water proofing Waterproof Finishes -Allows no water to penetrate, but tend to be uncomfortable because they trap moisture next to the body.
- Recently, fabrics have been developed that are waterproof, yet are also breathable Water-repellent finishes Water-repellent finishes resist wetting.
- If the fabric becomes very wet, water will eventually pass through.
Applied to fabrics found in raincoats, all-weather coats, hats, capes, umbrellas and shower curtains. Absorbent finishes Increase fibers’ moisture holding power. Such finishes have been applied to towels, cloth diapers, underwear, sports shirts and other items where moisture absorption is important.
- Anti static finish Reduce static electricity which may accumulate on fibers.
- The most common type of anti-static finishes is fabric softeners.
- Anti mildew In certain ambient (humidity and heat) conditions, cellulose can be permanently damaged.
- This damage can be due to depolymerisation of the cellulose or to the fact that certain microorganisms (mildews) feed off it.
The situation is worsened, during long storage periods, by the presence of starch finishing agents. This damage can be prevented by the use of antiseptics, bacteria controlling products containing quaternary ammonium salts, and phenol derivatives. Dyestuffs containing heavy metals can also act as antiseptics.
- Permanent modification of the fiber (cyanoethylation) is another possibility.
- Mothproofing finishes Protect protein-containing fibers, such as wool, from being attacked by moths, carpet beetles and other insects.
- Antibacterial finish The inherent properties of textile fibers provide room for the growth of micro-organisms.
The structure and chemical process may induce the growth, but it is the humid and warm environment that aggravates the problem further. Antimicrobial finish is applied to textile materials with a view to protect the wearer and textile substrate itself.
Antimicrobial finish provides the various benefits of controlling the infestation by microbes protect textiles from staining, discoloration, and quality deterioration and prevents the odor formation. Anti-microbial agents can be applied to the textile substrates by exhaust, pad-dry-cure, coating, spray and foam techniques.
The application of the finish is now extended to textiles used for outdoor, healthcare sector, sports and leisure. UV Protection Fabric treated with UV absorbers ensures that the clothes deflect the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun, reducing a person’s UVR exposure and protecting the skin from potential damage.
- The extent of skin protection required by different types of human skin depends on UV radiation intensity and distribution with reference to geographical location, time of day, and season.
- This protection is expressed as SPF (Sun Protection Factor), higher the SPF value better is the protection against UV radiation.
Colorfastness improving finish Color fastness is the resistance of a material to change in any of its color characteristics, to the transfer of its colorants to adjacent materials or both. Fading means that the color changes and lightens. Bleeding is the transfer of color to a secondary, accompanying fiber material.
- Improve the colorfastness to washing
- Improve the colorfastness to crocking
- Improve the colorfastness to light
- Improve the colorfastness to weathering
- Improve the colorfastness to chemicals washes such as mild bleaching, dry cleaning and commercial washing.
Plasma finish Plasma treatment is a surface modifying process, where a gas (air, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide and so on), injected inside a reactor at a pressure of approximately 0.5 mbar, is ionized by the presence of two electrodes between which is a high-frequency electric field.
- The need to create the vacuum is justified by the necessity to obtain so-called cold plasma with a temperature no higher than 80°C.
- This, with the same energy content that can be reached at atmospheric pressure at a temperature of some thousands of degrees C, permits the treatment of fabrics even with a low melting point such as polypropylene and polyethylene, without causing any form of damage.
The fabric, sliding through the electrodes, is subject to a true bombardment from the elements that constitute the plasma (ions, electrons, UV radiation and so on) and which come from the decomposition of gas and contain a very high level of kinetic energy.
The surface of the fabric exposed to the action of the plasma is modified, both physically (roughness), as well as chemically, to remove organic particles still present and to prepare for the successive introduction of free radicals and new chemical groups inside the molecular chain on the surface of the material.
The mechanical properties remain, on the other hand, unaltered, as the treatment is limited to the first molecular layers. Enzyme finishing Bio polishing, also called bio-finishing, is a finishing process applied to cellulosic textiles that produces permanent effects by the use of enzymes.
Bio-finishing removes protruding fibers and slubs from fabrics, significantly reduces pilling, softens fabric hand and provides a smooth fabric appearance, especially for knitwear and as a pretreatment for printing. Sewing thread finishing Apart from many of the above said finishes which can be applied to sewing threads also, A variety of finishes are used to improve the sewability of sewing thread, for example.
Lubricants reduce friction and improve the lubricity of the thread. Lubricity refers to the frictional characteristics of thread as it passes through the sewing machine and into the seam. Good lubricity characteristics will minimize thread breakage and enhance sewability.
Glazing increases strength and abrasion resistance. Glaze Finish refers to a finish put on 100% cotton threads or cotton-polyester core spun thread made from starches, waxes or other additives. This coating is then brushed to give the thread a smooth surface. A glaze finish protects the thread during sewing giving better ply security and abrasion resistance.
Bonding to increase strength and surface smoothness. Bonded Finish refers to a finish applied to continuous filament nylon and polyester threads which coats the fibers, giving the thread better ply security and abrasion resistance. Conclusion: Although both of the above categories of textile finishing process are accomplished with the help of some machine, in chemical finishing the final effect obtained on the textiles is primarily due to the chemicals used in finishing.
- In mechanical finishing, the final effect obtained on the textiles is primarily due to some mechanical action on the fabric by the machine.
- Chemical finishing results in change of chemical composition of the fabric.
- Most of the chemical finishes do not result in change in the fabric appearance but may result in change in some other physical and mechanical properties of the fabric.
Mechanical finishing does not result in any change in the elemental composition of the fabric. However, most mechanical finishes alter the fabric appearance. You may also like:
- Modern Applications of Nanotechnology in Textile Finishing
- Self Cleaning Textiles: New Concept of Textile Finishing
- Physical and Chemical Means of Textile Finishing
- Chemical Finishing and Its Importance in Textiles
- Fragrance Finishing of Textiles: Finishing Techniques and Future Scope
- Concept Development of Mercerization with Different Parameter and Comparison
- Recent Innovations in Nano-finishing in Textiles
- Value Addition Finishes for Textiles
- Antibacterial Finishes on Textile Materials
- Textile Finishing: Beautification Process of Fabric
Founder & Editor of Textile Learner. He is a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. He is working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.
What material is best for padding?
Deuter Act Lite’s padded back and straps It’s eight o’clock in the morning as you set out on your daily trek. A half mile hike through the concrete jungle followed by the wait. As you stand idly and enjoy the view of the city, your bus comes down the street.
- Being full, the driver looks indifferently past the small crowd waiting at the stop, apathetic to the fact that all of you are going to be late to work.
- On a bad day, a few more buses pass by before one finally has enough open space to stop for you.
- Already defeated, you step into the bus single file.
Fun fact of the day: “Sandpeople always ride single file to hide their numbers” — Obi Wan Kenobi. starwars.com Where were we If you’re lucky, you have a seat on the bus. Otherwise, you’re standing for the next 30 to 40 minutes as the bus crawls through a packed tunnel into a city of 8.5 million people. Once you’re finally off the bus, you have to fight through crowd after crowd, weaving through the thousands of tourists standing (literally, they just stand there) between you and your office.
Four blocks later, you’re finally at the office. Exhausted. You whip off your backpack. Plop into your desk chair with shoulders aching, finally ready to start the day. Rinse and repeat five days a week, every week. One thing that can make this daily march a tiny bit more bearable is having a comfortable backpack.
Several factors can affect how comfortable these backpacks are, including how well it fits on your body and the padding of the straps and back. Before you go on trigger warning for those with trypophobia. There is an image in the below section that might be a bit freaky.
Open cell foam is a very soft and compressible foam that is often seen in high end self-inflating camping mattresses. Open cell foam is made by using an inflating compound, such as sodium bicarbonate, into a rubber mixture. The sodium carbonate releases gas that inflates the rubber when it is vulcanized. Open cell foam is essentially interconnected air chambers and will feel great at first contact. However, because it is so compressible, open cell foam is not great for backpacks that if they are carrying weight, which is all backpacks. Under the weight of a loaded backpack, the foam will compress to the point that it is ineffective at providing much comfort and padding. So while it is comfortable for lighter loads, it’s not great for backpacks with larger volumes. When shopping for backpacks squeeze the padded straps between your thumb and index finger. If it compresses to less than half the original width, it’s likely open cell foam.In contrast to the interconnected air chambers, closed cell foam is air chambers that are surrounded (or closed) by foam and not interconnected. Essentially, encapsulated pockets of air cells. Close cell foam, which is also called Ensolite, is more suitable for padding on the straps as it doesn’t compress as easily as open cell foam. Since the air cells are encapsulated, Ensolite doesn’t absorb water like open cell foam, which can soak up water like a sponge. Closed cell foam used to be an attribute of better backpacks, but is now very common. It comes in a variety of densities, typically ranging from 6 to 19 lbs per cubic foot. Some examples of close cell foams include EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer), which is used in cable jointing and many electrical applications. Another example people may be more familiar with is neoprene, which has applications in virtually every industry. Even knee braces I wear when I play basketball, because I’m old and broken, are also made of neoprene. Backpacks will frequently use a closed cell foam in the shoulder straps while lining the back with open cell foam to provide more comfort.
Though closed cell foam provides better support for carrying loads, it is an expensive component to manufacture. To create, the liquid compound is poured into a flat frame to create sheets. These sheets are then cut down to the desired size and shape. Overall, the process is labor intensive and wastes a lot of material, driving up the costs. In response, compression molded foam was developed as a method to create closed cell foam. With compression molding, nylon is bound to polyethylene, and then thermally softened and compressed into the desired shape with a mold. The product is then cooled to solidify it.Now that we’ve seen the advantages and disadvantages of both open and closed cell foams, how can you get the benefits for both? Dual density foam utilizes both of them by having a layer of of open cell foam against the body (for comfort) with a layer of close cell foam to provide more support, providing comfort under both lighter and heavier loads. Many of Deuter’s backpacking bags (review to come in the near future!) use dual density shoulder straps and hip belts.Another type of foam that is often used in better backpacks today is EVA (Ethylene-vinyl acetate) foam, also known as PEVA (poly ethylene-vinyl acetate) foam. EVA, (C2H4)n(C4H6O2)m, sometimes also called expanded rubber or foam rubber, can vary in the amount of vinyl acetate used, which allows for various coplymers of differing densities. Other common applications of EVA range from use as a wax-like coating to drug delivery devices — the polymer has very low immunogenicity while still being non-biodegradable. It’s also used in other sporting equipment like boots, pads, gloves, and helmets. EVA is a very good materials to use for backpack padding as it is higher in density, durable, and springs back to shape against pressure. Some backpacks that use EVA foam include Boreas Gear bags, as well as the EVERGOODS CPL and MPL, We’ll have our hands on the Evergoods CPL at the end of the year, so be on the look out for a comprehensive review in a few months. They use a type of EVA called Zotefoam that has a more even distribution of density throughout the material.
https://evergoods.us/blogs/evergoods-road-to-launch/cpl24-marketing-materials TL;DR — Open cell foam is very comfortable but only under no weight as it is highly compressible, making it ineffective for backpacks. Closed cell foam has sealed air cells so it doesn’t compress like open cell, but doesn’t feel as great as open cell.
- Dual density foam takes both and laminates them together to get the benefits of both.
- EVA foam is a high density polymer that is durable and springy, the golden standard for backpack padding.
- The next time you’re buying a backpack in-person, you’ll know what to look for in the padding.
- As always, it’s best to try on a backpack to decide whether or not you like the way it feels.
REI has sandbags you can use in the backpacks to try out what it feels like fully loaded. Having a backpack that is comfortable can go a long way in making your trek more comfortable, whether it’s a daily commute or you’re tackling the Appalachian Trail.
White Mountain. https://www.whitemountain.com.au/backpack-construction/material-faqs.html, October 8, 2017.CGR Products. https://www.cgrproducts.com/open-cell-vs-closed-cell-foam/, October 8, 2017.Wikipedia. All of it. Again. October 9, 2017.
Why is padding needed?
Classical cryptography – Official messages often start and end in predictable ways: My dear ambassador, Weather report, Sincerely yours, etc. The primary use of padding with classical ciphers is to prevent the cryptanalyst from using that predictability to find known plaintext that aids in breaking the encryption.
Random length padding also prevents an attacker from knowing the exact length of the plaintext message. A famous example of classical padding which caused a great misunderstanding is ” the world wonders ” incident, which nearly caused an Allied loss at the WWII Battle off Samar, part of the larger Battle of Leyte Gulf,
In that example, Admiral Chester Nimitz, the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet in World War II, sent the following message to Admiral Bull Halsey, commander of Task Force Thirty Four (the main Allied fleet) at the Battle of Leyte Gulf, on October 25, 1944: Where is, repeat, where is Task Force Thirty Four? With padding (bolded) and metadata added, the message became: TURKEY TROTS TO WATER GG FROM CINCPAC ACTION COM THIRD FLEET INFO COMINCH CTF SEVENTY-SEVEN X WHERE IS RPT WHERE IS TASK FORCE THIRTY FOUR RR THE WORLD WONDERS Halsey’s radio operator mistook some of the padding for the message, so Admiral Halsey ended up reading the following message: Where is, repeat, where is Task Force Thirty Four? The world wonders Admiral Halsey interpreted the padding phrase “the world wonders” as a sarcastic reprimand, causing him to have an emotional outburst and then lock himself in his bridge and sulk for an hour before moving his forces to assist at the Battle off Samar.
- Halsey’s radio operator should have been tipped off by the letters RR that “the world wonders” was padding; all other radio operators who received Admiral Nimitz’s message correctly removed both padding phrases.
- Many classical ciphers arrange the plaintext into particular patterns (e.g., squares, rectangles, etc.) and if the plaintext doesn’t exactly fit, it is often necessary to supply additional letters to fill out the pattern.
Using nonsense letters for this purpose has a side benefit of making some kinds of cryptanalysis more difficult.
When should you use padding?
When to use padding vs. margin – It’s essential to know when to use padding vs. margin as you build your website. Once you’re familiar with the differences between margin and padding, it’ll be easier to determine when it’s the right time to implement margins on a page and when you should use padding.
- Change the size of an element, If you want to expand the space around an element, you can add or increase the padding surrounding it. This can be useful when working with interactive items, such as buttons or image-based links.
- Add space between borders and content, Using padding to add space between content and its corresponding border is one way to ensure the design aligns with other on-page elements. Doing so can help you increase the whitespace of your graphic or website, which is fundamental in web design.
When to use margins:
- Adjust an element’s positioning, One of the most common reasons to use margins when designing and developing a site is to change a specific element’s position. Using margins can help you move an element based on whether you prefer it to be centered on your page or positioned to the right or left. You can also choose if the element is fixed and will scroll along the page or if it should remain in one place as a user scrolls.
- Overlap elements, If you want to overlap specific elements with one another, you can do so using margins. Using a negative margin value is one of the quickest ways to allow elements to overlap with one another.
- Setting distance, Setting the distance between elements is much easier once you’re familiar with margins and how they work. Incorporating the right amount of whitespace can mean the difference between building an attractive website thriving with traffic and turning prospective customers away.
How long does it take to dry subfloor?
Plywood substrate – If you have a plywood substrate, you may experience swelling and distorting when exposed to moisture. Once plywood has become wet, it’s important to remove the moisture as soon as possible with the combination of a dehumidifier and a drying fan which usually takes a minimum of three full days.
Can carpet pad be dried?
You might be one of those who find it difficult to find the answer to this disturbing question ‘Can Carpet Padding Be Dried?’ The fact is that carpet padding can be dried. If you keep your carpet padding wet for more than a day, it is possible your carpet is already infected with mold.
Will a dehumidifier dry a wet floor?
Completely Dry the Wood – While the wood flooring appears dry, water could have penetrated throughout the plank as you can’t remove it with the wet vacuum. Use a dehumidifier placed at the highest setting possible to dry the floors. Place it in the center of the room and leave it on for at least 24 hours.
Next, place fans around the room so the entire surface receives the blowing air. Place the fans at the highest settings possible. If there is a level below the flooring that can be accessed, place fans on the lower level and aim the air up toward the ceiling to dry the subfloor and flooring from underneath.
You can also open the windows to bring in more moving air, yet you should not do this when it is raining outside as you don’t want the extra humidity to enter.
What are the two methods of dry curing?
LPT 321: Meat Science (1+1) The first method of curing is by applying salt to the surface, which is referred to as DRY CURING. The second method is by using a brine solution, in which the product is immersed or the brine solution is injected in to the products with a needle.
What temperature should dry cure be?
6.2.4. Cure Penetration – Cure mixtures do not penetrate into frozen meats. Before curing, it is essential to thaw meats completely first in the refrigerator. Pieces must be prepared to uniform sizes to ensure uniform cure penetration. This is extremely critical for dry and immersion curing ( PHS/FDA 2001 ).
Use an approved recipe for determining the exact amount of curing formulation to be used for a specified weight of meat or meat mixture ( PHS/FDA 2001 ). All surfaces of meat must be rotated and rubbed at intervals of sufficient frequency to ensure cure penetration when a dry curing method is used ( PHS/FDA 2001 ).
Immersion curing requires periodic mixing of the batch to facilitate uniform curing ( PHS/FDA 2001 ). Curing should be carried out at a temperature between 35°F and 40°F. The lower temperature is set for the purpose of ensuring cure penetration and the upper temperature is set to limit microbial growth ( PHS/FDA 2001 ).
How long does dry curing last?
Cured and Smoked Meats – Since cured and smoked meats can be classified as salt-based IM products, a brief description is included. Curing of meat chunks is done in brine solutions containing sodium chloride (10–20%), sodium or potassium nitrate (0.1%), sodium or potassium nitrite (0.01%), ascorbate (0.05%), and so on for 5–6 days at 4–5 °C.
Cured meats are held for maturation for 5–7 days at 4–5 °C to enable even distribution of curing salts. Later, they are subjected to smoking-cum-heating in controlled smokehouses to reduce moisture levels and to impart a smoky flavor, besides fixing the desirable bright pink color of cured meats. Processing schedules and brine compositions vary depending on the type of product being processed.
Nitrite has a specific inhibitory action on the spores of Clostridium botulinum, which is a potentially important pathogen in this class of meat products. Common salt, in addition to its direct inhibitory action, lowers water activity and contributes to the safety of cured and smoked meat products.
- There is a trend to decrease salt levels in cured products because of consumer demand for mild-cured products without compromising safety and stability.
- Sliced cured and smoked meat products, which are ready to eat, can be kept under refrigerated conditions for 2–3 weeks; at higher ambient temperatures, however, spoilage is noticed within 3–5 days.
Their keeping quality can be enhanced by a few days if they are subjected to further air drying or vacuum packaging. Although the commercial production of cured and smoked meats is a success story, it has not made a big impact in tropical countries because of cost and food habits.
What is padding mangle used for?
What is a laboratory padding mangle used for? A pad mangle can be used to squeeze moisture of a fabric and/or impregnate a fabric with dyes, chemicals or other special fabric performance finishes.