Pain Care Plan


Pain Care Plan

What is the objective data for pain care plan?

11.5 Applying the Nursing Process Open Resources for Nursing (Open RN) Nurses play an essential role in performing comprehensive pain assessment. Assessments include asking questions about the presence of pain, as well as observing for nonverbal indicators of pain, such as grimacing, moaning, and touching the painful area. Figure 11.14 Nonverbal Expression of Pain Recall that pain is defined as whatever the person experiencing it says it is. Subjective assessment includes asking questions regarding the severity rating, as well as obtaining comprehensive information by using the “PQRSTU” or “OLDCARTES” methods for assessing a chief complaint.

  • For some patients who are unable to quantify the severity of their pain, a visual scale like the FACES scale is the best way to perform subjective assessment regarding the severity of pain.
  • Objective data includes observations of nonverbal indications of pain, such as restlessness, facial grimacing and wincing, moaning, and rubbing or guarding painful areas.

For patients who cannot verbalize their pain, using a scale like the FLACC, COMFORT, or PAINAD is helpful to standardize observations across different staff members. Keep in mind that patients experiencing acute pain will also likely have vital signs changes, such as increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, and increased respiratory rate.

It is important to assess the impact of pain on a patient’s daily functioning. This can be accomplished by asking what effect the pain has on their ability to bathe, dress, prepare food, eat, walk, and complete other daily activities. Assessing the impact of pain on daily functioning is a new standard of care that assists the interdisciplinary team in tailoring treatment goals and interventions that are customized to the patient’s situation.

For example, for some patients, chronic pain affects their ability to be employed, so effective pain management is vital so they can return to work. For other patients receiving palliative care, the ability to sit up and eat a meal with loved ones without pain is an important goal.

What is included in a pain assessment?

Introduction – Pain assessment is crucial if pain management is to be effective. Nurses are in a unique position to assess pain as they have the most contact with the child and their family in hospital. Pain is the most common symptom children experience in hospital.

Acute pain (noiciception) is associated with tissue damage and an inflammatory response, it is self limiting of short duration and does not involve neural tissue. Pain is multidimensional therefore assessment must include the intensity, location, duration and description, the impact on activity and the factors that may influence the child’s perception of pain (bio psychosocial phenomenon) The influences that may alter pain perception and coping strategies include social history/issues, cultural and religious beliefs, past pain experiences and the first pain experience.

In addition family response to their child in pain can have a negative or positive influence.

What is the goal of pain assessment?

Purpose of pain assessment Understand the cause of the pain to help determine the best treatment ; Monitor the pain to determine whether the underlying disease or disorder is improving or deteriorating, and whether the pain treatment is working.

Who writes a care plan?

Person-centred care and support plans – Each person’s needs and choices will be unique to them. This means that staff must do all they can to help the person convey their personal aspirations and goals, and the support they need. Creating the care plan with the person or their chosen representative will keep the focus on what is important to that individual and will enable their care and support to reflect this.

Table 1 Key differences between ‘traditional’ and person-centred care

Traditional care planning Person-centred, MCA-compliant care planning
The professional assesses the person’s needs. Care and support plans are developed with the person. The conversation is led by the person who knows best about their needs and preferences.
Care planning follows a medical model of disability. Care planning follows a social model of disability.
There is a focus on what the person is unable to do. There is a focus on goals and aspirations, what the person would like to achieve with their care and support.
There is a static view of the person’s ability or capacity. Care planning explores potential for change, opportunities to develop capacity and ability.
The professional writes the care plan with little or no input from the person or their representative. The person is supported to express how they would like their care and support to be delivered. The professional provides information about what the service can offer. They agree what will be in the care and support plan. A copy of the plan is made available to the person and/or their representative.
The emphasis is on protecting the person from risk. The emphasis is on safe care that respects a person’s right to take risks that they understand.
The process takes place when it is convenient for the professional. The care planning conversation takes place at a time when the person is most or more likely to have capacity.
Power is with the professionals. Power is equally shared.

Promoting involvement may mean orientating the person to the decision. For example, helping to orientate a person with dementia to the time and place relevant to the decision and filling in the gaps of their understanding. It might also include orientating a person’s beliefs concerning a decision.

For example, helping someone who is depressed to hold onto positive values that were important to them when they were not so depressed. Ongoing work to reduce the effects of mental health conditions and maintain independence and control is vital to maximising a person’s capacity to make a decision. Actively involving other people who are part of the person’s life will usually improve their care and support.

Linking into a person’s existing support network will bring together all the information about them, so that their care and support are tailored to meet their specific needs and preferences. This will help to improve the user’s experience and promote their wellbeing, rather than merely responding to problems as they arise: ‘Being truly person centred is about recognising people within the full context of their lives and how they live them and not just focusing on their health conditions’.

What the person would like to achieve with their care and support, their goals and aspirations for the future. What is important to the person about how they live their life now: what they enjoy doing, their interests, likes and dislikes, who is important to them, who they like to see, and their preferred routines (such as when they like to get up and go to bed, whether they like a bath or a shower, etc.). Details of key life events and dates to assist with chronological orientation. How best to support and involve the person in decision-making. Essential information for continuity of care and for use in emergencies. Roles and responsibilities so that the person receives coordinated care and support to meet their needs. Where a person lacks capacity to express their choices, how their families and others who are interested in their welfare have been consulted. What outcome the person wants and any other options considered. The associated benefits and risks of each option.

The case of M, from the Court of Protection, clearly illustrates the importance of care planning that takes account of the full context of a person’s life. Practice example: the case of M M, a 67-year-old woman, had a mild mental health problem and lacked capacity to decide where to live.

She had substantial medical needs including diabetes, which was not well controlled. M was placed in a care home by the clinical commissioning group (CCG). It considered this to be in her best interests because of the significant risks to her health if she returned home. However, M hated living in the care home and said that she wanted to leave or she would take her own life.

While acknowledging these risks, the Court of Protection said that if M remained in the care home, she was entitled to ask, what for? The right to life and the state’s obligation to protect it is not absolute and the Court must have regard to the person’s own assessment of their quality of life.

Can nurses write care plans?

A nursing care plan is a road map for the care of a patient and a necessary tool in following the nursing process. Understanding nursing care plans is an important part of any nursing school curriculum and definitely something you’ll need to know as a nursing student.

In this guide, you’ll learn how to write and use a nursing care plan and why they’re important for maintaining quality patient care. Care plans play a vital role in the treatment of a patient. They clearly define guidelines along with the nurse’s role in patient care and help them create and achieve a solid plan of action.

This equips nurses to provide focused care—without overlooking important steps. Nursing care plans also promote: Collaboration

A well-documented care plan ensures the patient’s entire care team (doctors, nurses, etc.) can access the same information, give input, and join forces to provide the best care possible.


Care plans help nurses uphold the nursing code of ethics and provide a record that they did so in case of lawsuits or accusations that they failed to adhere to care standards.


A care plan is a communication tool for patient care between nurses. When nurses change shifts they’re able to reference the patient’s care plan to ensure the same quality care and interventions are being executed.

Without nursing care plans, nursing staff might have to rely on verbal communication and patient information could become more easily scattered or lost, all of which could result in improper patient care, Nursing care plans follow a five-step process: assessment, diagnosis, outcomes, implementation, and evaluation.

  1. Assess the patient.
  2. The first step to writing a care plan is performing a patient assessment.
  3. This includes reviewing your patient’s medical history, diagnosis, lab values, and medications.
  4. This step is critical to creating an effective and accurate care plan for either short term or long term care.
  5. Make a diagnosis.

Nursing diagnoses differs from a medical diagnosis in that it’s based on the patient’s response to an illness, rather than the illness itself. Simply put, a nursing diagnosis is focused on patient care rather than treatment. According to NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association), a good nursing care plan should not only list each diagnosis but define it as well.

  1. For example, acid reflux should be described as: “Ineffective airway clearance related to gastroesophageal reflux as evidenced by retching, upper airway congestion, and persistent coughing.” Set goals and outcomes.
  2. Once you’ve completed an assessment and diagnosis, it’s time to write down goals and a desired health care outcomes for your patient.

These describe what you hope to achieve in the short- and long-term future, provide direction for planning interventions, and serve as criteria for evaluating progress. Goals are documented in the patient’s care plan so that other nurses and health professionals caring for the patient have access to it.

  1. Determine nursing interventions.
  2. At this point in the care plan, you’ll list all planned nursing interventions and document any that you’ve performed.
  3. You’ll write down things such as client responses to care, pain scale responses, medications given and their dosages, vital signs, etc.
  4. This communicates what nursing orders were implemented, what still needs to be done, and if the patient is ready to be discharged.

Evaluate the plan. Evaluation is necessary in a patient care plan to determine whether to continue, adjust, or terminate the plan of care. It measures the degree to which goals and outcomes are achieved and provides evidence for what factors positively or negatively impacted those goals.

Registered nurses and nurse practitioners use these plans in the nursing process as a road map for providing care. They’re also a tool to help nurses think critically and holistically to support the patient’s needs—physically, socially, spiritually, and psychosocially. Only RNs can develop the care plan and make changes, although LPNs can contribute suggestions.

A nursing care plan begins as soon as a patient is admitted and is updated frequently as their condition changes or after an evaluation. It’s an ongoing process that requires detailed, accurate documentation that strictly adheres to the nursing code of ethics, as well as HIPAA rules and regulations,

What are the 5 stages of care planning?

Function – The nursing process functions as a systematic guide to client-centered care with 5 sequential steps. These are assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. Assessment Assessment is the first step and involves critical thinking skills and data collection; subjective and objective.

Subjective data involves verbal statements from the patient or caregiver. Objective data is measurable, tangible data such as vital signs, intake and output, and height and weight. Data may come from the patient directly or from primary caregivers who may or may not be direct relation family members. Friends can play a role in data collection.

Electronic health records may populate data and assist in assessment. Critical thinking skills are essential to assessment, thus the need for concept-based curriculum changes. Diagnosis The formulation of a nursing diagnosis by employing clinical judgment assists in the planning and implementation of patient care.

  • The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) provides nurses with an up-to-date list of nursing diagnoses.
  • A nursing diagnosis, according to NANDA, is defined as a clinical judgment about responses to actual or potential health problems on the part of the patient, family, or community.
  • A nursing diagnosis encompasses Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and helps to prioritize and plan care based on patient-centered outcomes.

In 1943, Abraham Maslow developed a hierarchy based on basic fundamental needs innate to all individuals. Basic physiological needs/goals must be met before higher needs/goals can be achieved such as self-esteem and self-actualization. Physiological and safety needs provide the basis for the implementation of nursing care and nursing interventions.

  • Basic Physiological Needs: Nutrition (water and food), elimination (Toileting), airway (suction)-breathing (oxygen)-circulation (pulse, cardiac monitor, blood pressure) (ABCs), sleep, sex, shelter, and exercise.
  • Safety and Security: Injury prevention (side rails, call lights, hand hygiene, isolation, suicide precautions, fall precautions, car seats, helmets, seat belts), fostering a climate of trust and safety (therapeutic relationship), patient education (modifiable risk factors for stroke, heart disease).
  • Love and Belonging: Foster supportive relationships, methods to avoid social isolation (bullying), employ active listening techniques, therapeutic communication, and sexual intimacy.
  • Self-Esteem: Acceptance in the community, workforce, personal achievement, sense of control or empowerment, accepting one’s physical appearance or body habitus.
  • Self-Actualization: Empowering environment, spiritual growth, ability to recognize the point of view of others, reaching one’s maximum potential.

Planning The planning stage is where goals and outcomes are formulated that directly impact patient care based on EDP guidelines. These patient-specific goals and the attainment of such assist in ensuring a positive outcome. Nursing care plans are essential in this phase of goal setting.

  1. Care plans provide a course of direction for personalized care tailored to an individual’s unique needs.
  2. Overall condition and comorbid conditions play a role in the construction of a care plan.
  3. Care plans enhance communication, documentation, reimbursement, and continuity of care across the healthcare continuum.

Goals should be:

  1. Specific
  2. Measurable or Meaningful
  3. Attainable or Action-Oriented
  4. Realistic or Results-Oriented
  5. Timely or Time-Oriented

Implementation Implementation is the step that involves action or doing and the actual carrying out of nursing interventions outlined in the plan of care. This phase requires nursing interventions such as applying a cardiac monitor or oxygen, direct or indirect care, medication administration, standard treatment protocols, and EDP standards.

  • Evaluation This final step of the nursing process is vital to a positive patient outcome.
  • Whenever a healthcare provider intervenes or implements care, they must reassess or evaluate to ensure the desired outcome has been met.
  • Reassessment may frequently be needed depending upon overall patient condition.

The plan of care may be adapted based on new assessment data.

What are the 5 C’s in health care?

Abstract – This introductory paper describes how nurses can incorporate eight caring elements into nursing care for terminally ill patients. These caring elements can be described as: Compassion, Competence, Confidence, Conscience, Commitment, Courage, Culture and Communication.

  1. The Eight Cs of caring are comprised of Simone Roach’s five Cs plus three further Cs.
  2. According to Roach (1993), who developed the Five Cs (Compassion, Competence, Confidence, Conscience and Commitment), knowledge, skills and experience make caring unique.
  3. Here, I extend Roach’s work by proposing three further Cs (Courage, Culture and Communication).

The paper takes as its framework the concept of holistic care, which encompasses physical, psychological, emotional, spiritual and cultural aspects. Examples are provided as to how the Eight Cs may be applied. Literature from various nursing scholars is included to support the discussion throughout.

What are the components of a care plan?

Five Components of a Nursing Care Plan – Nurses often ask how to begin a nursing care plan and how to ensure that it is formulated correctly. The following five components serve as a guide to correctly create a nursing care plan without missing any of the necessary elements. Nursing care plans follow a five-step process: assessment, diagnosis, outcomes, implementation, and evaluation:

Assessment – the first step to writing a care plan is to perform a detailed patient assessment Make a diagnosis – based on the patient’s current medical issues taking place, diagnoses are formulated. The official definition of the term  nursing diagnosis  from the NANDA-I website is a “clinical judgment concerning a human response to health conditions/life processes, or a vulnerability for that response, by an individual, family, group or community”. A nursing diagnosis provides the basis for selecting nursing interventions to achieve outcomes for which the nurse has accountability. Set goals and outcomes – nursing care plans must have goals and intended outcomes in place in order for positive results to occur Determine nursing interventions/implementation – interventions that correlate with the diagnoses must have interventions or plans of action in place that serve as guidelines on how to effectively meet each goal Evaluate the plan – evaluating the nursing care plan at initial assessment, during care, and upon discharge is essential to determine if goals are being met and if interventions need to be revised

What are the 6 components of care?

Start working on them today. – Photo by Jared Rice on Unsplash Being healthy is a great blessing. A healthy person can achieve every goal of their life. If you want to be healthy and successful in every walk of life you need to keep a check on six components of health every now and then.

If you are in the best of your health, you will be performing the best of yourself and achieving more in less time. These main six components are Physical Health, Mental Health, Emotions Health, Social Health, Spiritual Health, and Environmental Health. They are the basis of your good health and fitness.

These six components of health and wellness complete your health wheel and you will be surely performing with the best of your capabilities. He who has health has hope and he who has hope has everything Arabian Proverbs Let’s have a look at how you can adopt each of these basic factors of health to keep yourself fit, motivated, and healthy. Photo by Alexander Redl on Unsplash Physical health is related to your body mechanism. It is one of the main six components of health and plays a key role in maintaining good health. You can’t achieve a fit and fine body and life without maintaining your physical health.

In order to maintain physical health, you should do some exercise, sleep well (at least 8 hours a day), eat nutritious meals, and avoid (or keep it minimal) health-damaging habits like smoking, alcohol consumption, etc. To keep yourself active, you can also take some swimming lessons which will help build stamina as well.

Doing gym routinely is the cherry on the top to make your health better. These things help you to be more active and healthy, which will help you do your work more efficiently. Photo by Anthony Tran on Unsplash Mental health is one of the most important aspects of your health. It relates to your interactions and mental processing and helps in the