Which Of The Following Bryophyte Is Used To Cure Pulmonary Tuberculosis
A. Medicinal Uses: –
- Bryophytes have many uses in medicine and there is a lot of evidence from ancient times.
- Sphagnum has high absorptive power and antiseptic property due to this it was used for surgical dressing as well as for discharging wounds.
- Marchantia has been used for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis and pain in the liver.
- The extraction of dried sphagnum is used to treat acute haemorrhage and eye infections.
- Sphagnum is the distillate form of peat-tar and was used to treatment of skin disease and peat-tar was also used as an antiseptic.
- Polytrichum was used for kidney and gall bladder stones.
- 0.1 Which bryophytes used for pulmonary tuberculosis?
- 0.2 Which bryophyte is considerable economic importance?
- 0.3 What is used to cure pulmonary tuberculosis?
- 0.4 What is the cure for pulmonary tuberculosis?
- 1 What are the 3 types of bryophyte and which is the most common?
- 2 What are 3 examples of bryophytes?
- 3 What are the 3 types of bryophytes?
- 4 Why bryophytes are called mosses?
- 5 Which plant is against tuberculosis?
Which bryophytes used for pulmonary tuberculosis?
Marchantia polymorpha is a bryophyte used to cure pulmonary tuberculosis.
Which bryophyte is considerable economic importance?
Bryophyte – Economic and ecological importance The genus Sphagnum is an economically important bryophyte. The harvesting, processing, and sale of Sphagnum is a multimillion-dollar industry. Peat is used in, as an energy source (fuel), and, to a limited extent, in the extraction of organic products, in whiskey production, and as insulation.
Bryophytes are very important in initiating soil formation on terrain, in maintaining soil moisture, and in recycling nutrients in forest vegetation. Indeed, discerning the presence of particular bryophytes is useful in assessing the productivity and nutrient status of forest types. Further, through the study of bryophytes, various biological phenomena have been discovered that have had a profound influence on the development of research in such areas as genetics and cytology.
: Bryophyte – Economic and ecological importance
What is used to cure pulmonary tuberculosis?
The most common TB medicines are: isoniazid. pyrazinamide. ethambutol (Myambutol)
What is the cure for pulmonary tuberculosis?
Treatment for tuberculosis (TB) – The main treatment for tuberculosis (TB) is to take antibiotics for at least 6 months. If TB has spread to your brain, spinal cord or the area around your heart, you may also need to take steroid medicine for a few weeks. If you have TB but do not have symptoms (latent TB) you usually need to take antibiotics for 3 to 6 months,
What are the 3 types of bryophyte and which is the most common?
Bryophytes are a class of non-vascular, non-flowering plant that grows on land. Bryophytes include mosses, hornworts, and liverworts. Mosses are the most commonly found type of bryophyte globally, with between 15,000 and 25,000 individual species believed to exist by taxonomists.
Why are mosses bryophytes important?
Bryophytes The world of mosses, liverworts and hornworts, collectively known as bryophytes, form a beautiful miniature forest; nonetheless they are often overlooked, due to their small size and lack of colorful flowers. But it is precisely those characteristics that make bryophytes incredibly interesting from an evolutionary standpoint.
Bryophytes have a fascinating and complex biology,” STRI research associate and former Tupper post-doctoral fellow,, points out,” “The evolutionary adaptations of these plants to succeed despite their size is really interesting.” Bryophytes also play a very important role in the environment: they colonize sterile soils, absorb nutrients and water and release them slowly back into the ecosystem, contributing to the formation of soil for new plants to grow on.
Still, there is much to learn about bryophytes, especially in the tropics where there are less abundant and therefore less studied. There is a growing interest in boosting the study of bryophytes in the tropics, to discover more about their evolution, and their role in the biodiversity of the region.
Each species has its role in nature,” Villareal adds, “and each new species demonstrates that biodiversity needs attention, we need to know how many species we have to know their ecological function.” What are bryophytes? Bryophytes is the informal group name for mosses, liverworts and hornworts. They are non-vascular plants, which means they have no roots or vascular tissue, but instead absorb water and nutrients from the air through their surface ( e.g.
, their leaves). Most of them only grow a few centimeters in height, and since they don’t need roots, they can grow in places that other plants cannot, like on the surface of rocks, walls, pavement, etc. Bryophytes thrive in damp, shady environments, but they can also be found in diverse and even extreme habitats, from deserts to arctic areas. Bryophytes can grow on almost any surface, since they don’t have roots; we can find them on rocks, cement, brick walls, wooden structures and other hard surfaces. Credit: Jorge Alemán, STRI. Bryophytes can grow on almost any surface, since they don’t have roots; we can find them on rocks, cement, brick walls, wooden structures and other hard surfaces. Credit: Jorge Alemán, STRI. Bryophytes can grow on almost any surface, since they don’t have roots; we can find them on rocks, cement, brick walls, wooden structures and other hard surfaces. Credit: Jorge Alemán, STRI. Bryophytes can grow on almost any surface, since they don’t have roots; we can find them on rocks, cement, brick walls, wooden structures and other hard surfaces. Credit: Jorge Alemán, STRI. Bryophytes can grow on almost any surface, since they don’t have roots; we can find them on rocks, cement, brick walls, wooden structures and other hard surfaces. Credit: Jorge Alemán, STRI. They are also long thought to be the closest living relatives to the very first terrestrial plants, with ancestors dating as far as half a billion years.
However, recent studies tend to present a different hypothesis, although not undermining their evolutionary potential. “Bryophytes therefore can reveal information about how the first plants adapted in their conquest of the terrestrial environment”, says, a staff scientist at STRI and specialist in plant systematics.
“Still, all existing species of bryophytes are very recent, which means that a lot have disappeared, and their descendants have evolved, resulting in the diversity we have now,” Villareal states. “The current species have an immense genetic diversity and an evolutionary potential yet unknown, especially in tropical species.” Noris Salazar Allen has been, for a long time, one of the few researchers dedicated to understanding the diversity of bryophytes in Panama.
- She was inspired to go into Bryology when she spoke with one of her professors, a bryophytes specialist, as a graduate student at the State University of New York.
- Since I didn’t know these plants, I thought it would be interesting to learn about them,” she said.
- Similarly, Dr Villarreal was inspired by one person to go into the field of bryology: professor Salazar Allen.
“She showed me the hornworts during my bachelor studies,” he said. “And after that, I dedicated my masters, doctorate and post-doctorate to study that group. The biology of hornworts is impressive!” Besides having worked as an intern at STRI under Salazar Allen’s tutoring, Villarreal also collaborated with her when he was awarded a Smithsonian Earl S.
- Tupper Fellowship in 2015, with which he researched the symbiotic relationship between plants and cyanobacteria (used by bryophytes to obtain nitrogen) on a genomic level, hoping to help create genetic tools that would reduce the demand for artificial fertilizers for food crops.
- Recently, Salazar Allen discovered a new species of moss from samples collected in Panama and Brazil.
She and her laboratory technician José Gudiño published a paper detailing the discovery in the scientific journal Phytokeys on October 2020, titled ” Octoblepharum peristomiruptum (Octoblepharaceae) a new species from the Neotropics”. This new moss was identified after reexamining over 400 samples of what was supposed to be another species, O.
- Albidum, and it was named O.
- Peristomiruptum due to a rupture between the peristome teeth (from the Greek peri ‘around’ and stoma ‘mouth’; in the case of mosses, the peristome is the opening through which the spores are released).
- This is one of the four species that she has named throughout her career, as well as three subspecies, and she has co-authored in the publication of other new species.
“Every time we find a new species it tells us more about how these plants evolve and have evolved for millions of years,” Salazar Allen says. “We are basically in inventory phase regarding bryophytes biodiversity,” Villareal adds, “it’s much more difficult to identify bryophytes than other plants, and we lack in physiological, ecological and genomic studies.” The benevolence of bryophytes However small, these plants have a very big and important role in the ecosystem: absorption.
“They can capture humidity from rain or even fog, retaining excess rain and preventing floods and soil erosion,” explains Salazar Allen. “In cloud forests, they act as a sponge and provide a water reserve for the forest and subterranean waters. They also capture and store and recycle water and nutrients for the forests, and provide shelter and food for many invertebrates,” she adds.
Additionally, bryophytes help lay the groundwork for new plants to grow during the early stages of ecological succession, when an ecosystem goes through a disturbance and begins to regenerate, such as after a volcanic eruption, wildfire, deforestation, deglaciation, etc.; the bryophytes spread quickly thanks to their spores, and they stabilize the soil surface, reducing erosion and water evaporation.
Especially in Canada and the United Kingdom there are a lot more studies on bryophytes and their importance, due to their abundance. “In Nordic regions there are more diverse groups, they cover a lot more surface and their ecological roles are more evident,” Villarreal explains. “Peat moss, for example, and especially the species Sphagnum, covers 8% of the territory of the province of Québec, approximately 11.6 million hectares,” he adds.
Peat moss is an efficient carbon sink, a natural reservoir that accumulates and stores carbon indefinitely, which has gotten a lot of attention in the fight against climate change. But while bryophytes are studied much more extensively and their ecological benefits better known in the northern hemisphere, in the tropics they are not as popular among researchers as flowering plants.
“They don’t represent very abundant biomass, except in mountainous regions, which gives the impression that their ecological role is smaller,” Villarreal remarks. “There are fewer people studying bryophytes, and financing is scarce. Recently some colleagues in Universidad Autónoma de Chiriquí (UNACHI) have started pushing the study of bryophytes, in the Chiriquí region, where they are more abundant and diverse.” Biologist Iris Fossatti, who is a graduate student at UNACHI, published a paper in the scientific magazine Phytotaxa in 2020, describing a new liverwort of the genus Lejeuneaceae, which she identified in the province of Chiriquí, Panama.
She named the new species Ceratolejeunea panamensis, in honor of the country where it was found. For now, bryophytes in the tropics are certainly threatened due to lack of information and research. “They are interesting model organism we should study because of how they adapt to the current environments and the changes caused by global warming,” Salazar Allen says.
- We have yet so much to learn about their diversity in the tropics, their evolution, development, ecology and phylogenetics.” In the meantime, how can we protect them? The simple answer is to preserve biodiversity.
- It’s important to preserve whole ecosystems, especially in the mountains, keeping the air and water from rivers and streams in pristine condition,” Villarreal says.
Extraction is a huge threat to bryophytes as well; even something as seemingly harmless as decorative moss for Christmas nativity scenes, each year results in higher demand for mosses. The massive extraction of mosses for Nativity scenes may decimate entire species of bryophytes.
- Salazar Allen mentions that good control of ecotourism in protected areas is essential as well to protect biodiversity, as is education.
- If children know more about bryophytes and their importance to the forests and the animals that live there, they will contribute to their conservation,” she declares.
She points out that the pandemic has helped preserve the forest environments and animal and plant diversity, because fewer people have been going into the forest due to mobility restrictions and the high risk of contagion. “On the other hand, it has affected our ability to go out and study and monitor bryophytes in their natural environment.
Hopefully we will soon be able to go back into the field,” she says. Every year the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute invites applications for the Earl S. Tupper 3-year postdoctoral fellowship, for a prestigious research opportunity in Panama. This year’s application deadline is August 15th, 2021.
Application submissions are received through the Smithsonian Online Academic Appointments system (SOLAA):, For more information about STRI’s current fellowship opportunities, visit: Salazar Allen, Noris and Gudiño, José A.2020. Octoblepharum peristomiruptum (Octoblepharaceae) a new species from the Neotropics,
What are the uses of bryophytes in medicine?
8. Future prospective – Currenlty, scientific research on medicinal use of bryophytes is being carried out in most pharmaceutical laboratories, research institutes and universities. The current research is going on the active ingredients of medicinal bryophytes are used in curing diseases such as hepatic disorders, skin diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and many more other ailments.
What is the first line treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis?
First-line agents for treatment of TB disease consist of isoniazid, a rifamycin (rifampin or either rifapentine or rifabutin), pyrazinamide, and ethambutol ; in addition, moxifloxacin is a first-line agent when administered in combination with isoniazid, rifapentine, and pyrazinamide.
When was the cure for tuberculosis found?
In 1943 Selman Waksman discovered a compound that acted against M. tuberculosis, called streptomycin. The compound was first given to a human patient in November 1949 and the patient was cured.
Is there an effective cure for TB?
Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria ( Mycobacterium tuberculosis ) that most often affect the lungs. Tuberculosis is curable and preventable. TB is spread from person to person through the air. When people with lung TB cough, sneeze or spit, they propel the TB germs into the air.
A person needs to inhale only a few of these germs to become infected. About one-third of the world’s population has latent TB, which means people have been infected by TB bacteria but are not (yet) ill with disease and cannot transmit the disease. People infected with TB bacteria have a lifetime risk of falling ill with TB of 10%.
However persons with compromised immune systems, such as people living with HIV, malnutrition or diabetes, or people who use tobacco, have a much higher risk of falling ill. When a person develops active TB (disease), the symptoms (cough, fever, night sweats, weight loss etc.) may be mild for many months.
- This can lead to delays in seeking care, and results in transmission of the bacteria to others.
- People ill with TB can infect up to 10-15 other people through close contact over the course of a year.
- Without proper treatment up to two thirds of people ill with TB will die.
- Since 2000, 53 million lives have been saved through effective diagnosis and treatment.
Active, drug-sensitive TB disease is treated with a standard 6-month course of 4 antimicrobial drugs that are provided with information, supervision and support to the patient by a health worker or trained volunteer. The vast majority of TB cases can be cured when medicines are provided and taken properly.
What is pulmonary tuberculosis?
Pulmonary Tuberculosis: TB Causes, Symptoms, & Treatments Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) that involves the lungs but may spread to other organs. TB is a contagious disease that can infect anyone exposed to MTB.
While consumption (the former name for TB) is no longer a common cause of death in the United States, there are epidemics of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in other countries and among some communities of homeless or disadvantaged people in the United States. There are also “atypical” mycobacteria that cause disease in immune-compromised individuals, including those with HIV/AIDS.
It is useful to distinguish primary and secondary TB infection.
Primary MTB infection is spread by air droplets from a cough or sneeze from a person infected with the bacterium and can affect anyone, but the clinical disease is limited except in people with weakened immune systems, as well as infants and the elderly. Most people recover from primary TB infection, but the infection stays inactive (latent, dormant) for years. Secondary TB is the reactivation of a dormant infection with MTB, usually but not always in a person with a weakened immune system.
Several conditions that cause weakened immune systems can make people more susceptible to TB, including:
Medicines to treat an autoimmune disease Chemotherapy for cancer HIV disease
Preventing TB Tuberculosis is preventable. If you have been exposed to a person with an active TB infection, a PPD test (also called tuberculin skin test) can determine if you are infected. If there is risk of exposure, you should have a test promptly with a follow-up test at a later date, if the first test is negative.
- A positive skin test does not mean that you have active disease or are contagious, only that you have come into contact with the TB bacteria.
- Many people test positive because they have been exposed to TB at some time, not necessarily recently.
- Treatment of latent TB infection involves only one or two drugs for a few months, avoids development of active disease and makes longer treatment with more drugs unnecessary.
If you develop symptoms that could be related to TB at any time after you have a positive skin test, seek medical advice since prompt treatment will prevent you from spreading MTB to your family, friends and coworkers. Symptoms of TB Only some of the following symptoms of active pulmonary TB may occur during the primary infection (and they may be relatively mild in an otherwise healthy person) or a secondary reactivation of MTB infection:
Chest pain Wheezing or difficulty breathing Cough (usually with mucus, sometimes with blood) Fever, sometimes with night sweats Fatigue Unintentional weight loss
Diagnosing TB Patients with primary or secondary active TB have characteristic symptoms:
Lymph nodes in the neck or other areas may be swollen or tender Lung sounds (crackles) Chest fullness due to fluid around the lungs (pleural effusion)
The clinical diagnosis of TB is confirmed by one or both of the following tests:
Interferon-gamma release blood test Sputum examination by microscope for acid-fast bacteria
The extent of disease is determined by imaging the lungs (and other parts of the body if there are symptoms that the TB has spread beyond the lungs) with a chest X-ray or computed tomography (CT) scan. Treating TB Treatment of active TB always involves a combination of several (usually four) medicines for six months or longer.
- Even for ordinary TB, effective regimens require many pills at several times of the day.
- If resistant TB is suspected, the drug regimens are more complex.
- Preventive therapy, on the other hand, may be only one or two pills a day for a shorter period.
- When there is a concern that you may not take all the medicines exactly as directed, a health care provider may need to watch you take the prescribed medicines.
This approach is called directly observed therapy (DOT). In this case, medicines may be given two or three times a week, as prescribed by a doctor. To avoid spreading the disease to others, you may need to be isolated for the first two to four weeks of TB therapy until you are no longer contagious.
What are 3 examples of bryophytes?
Conclusion – Bryophytes are an informal division that consists of 3 groups of non-vascular plants, namely mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. Prominent bryophytes characteristics are the absence of true roots stems and leaves. Furthermore, rhizoids perform the function of roots, essentially anchoring the plants into the surface.
- Though, rhizoids do not absorb nutrients like traditional plant roots.
- An environment that is high in moisture or proximity to a waterbody is very essential for mosses to grow and spread.
- However, some species of mosses are also known to survive in arid and semi-arid environments like deserts.
- In such cases, they can entirely dry out and enter a state of,
When they come in contact with water again, they revive and continue growing. For more information on bryophyta or any other related topic, explore,
- Further Reading:
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What are the 3 types of bryophytes?
In this part of the website you’ll find descriptions of the features you can see in the three groups of bryophytes – the hornworts, liverworts and mosses, The aim is to give you a good understanding of bryophyte structure and of the similarities and differences between the three groups.
The following links will take you to separate sections about the three groups. WHAT IS A HORNWORT? WHAT IS A LIVERWORT? WHAT IS A MOSS? In those sections you’ll find descriptions of the gametophytes and sporophytes, with illustrations of both naked eye and some microscopic features. If a bryophyte has sporophytes it’s very easy to tell whether you have a moss, a hornwort or a liverwort.
However, without a sporophyte it becomes harder. In particular when trying to determine whether you have a moss or a leafy liverwort. The leaves of mosses and the leafy liverworts show a variety of features that are very useful in telling the two apart.
What are the 3 in bryophytes?
Bryophytes and its Three Groups Bryophytes are non-flowering, non-vascular and seedless plants that are the second most largest group in the Plant Kingdom. They are also known as the amphibians of plant kingdom because they are found in moist, shady areas but are dependent on water for their sexual mode of reproduction.
What are mosses used for?
4. Soaking it up – Mosses function like sponges, using their capillary spaces to hang on to water. They help to soak up rainfall, maintain moisture in the soil below and keep conditions around them humid. This enables other plants around them thrive, such as in habitats like marshes and woodland.
Why bryophytes are called mosses?
The term Bryophyta originates from the word ‘Bryon’ meaning mosses and ‘phyton’ meaning plants. Bryophyta includes plants like mosses, hornworts, and liverworts. These are small plants that grow in shady and damp areas. They lack vascular tissues.
Which plant used in tuberculosis?
Abstract – Background: Majority of people in Ethiopia heavily rely on traditional medicinal plants to treat a number of diseases including tuberculosis (TB). However, there has been lack of comprehensive evidences on taxonomic distribution of medicinal plant species, methods of preparation of remedies from these plants and how the remedies are administered.
- This systematic review is designed to examine and synthesize available evidences focusing on medicinal plants that have been used for TB treatment in Ethiopia.
- Methods: Research findings related to ethno-botanical and pharmacological approaches of TB remedies were retrieved from databases.
- Electronic libraries of Ethiopian Universities and relevant church-based religious books were also reviewed as additional sources.
Evidences are searched and organized in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. Result: From a total of 68 research documents that reported use of plants for treatment of TB 98 plants species belonging to 82 genera and 49 families were identified.
- The most frequently reported plant species belonged to family Lamiaceae (n = 8), Euphorbiaceae (n = 7), Cucurbitaceae (n = 6) and Fabaceae (n = 6).
- Croton macrostachyus, Allium sativum, and Myrsine Africana were the most often mentioned anti-TB medicinal plants.
- Shrubs (35.7%) and trees (29.6%) were reported as dominant growth forms while plant roots (31.6%) and leaves (28.6%) were frequently used plant parts for the preparations of the treatment.
The most favored administration route was oral (59.1%). About 87% of the preparations were made from fresh plant materials. No experimental/clinical evidence was presented for 79.6%(78/98) of the reported plants to support their anti-mycobacterial activities.
- Conclusion: In Ethiopia, the number of herbal remedies is enormous and their use for TB treatment is a common practice.
- However, majority of them are not yet backed up by evidence generated through scientific experimentation and this warrants further experimental and clinical validations.
- Moreover, the efficacy, toxicity and safety tests should be initiated and this would help in the rapid identification of new anti-TB regimens, and possibly it would lead to developing more effective new plant-based drugs.
This systematic review will serve as a reference for the selection of plants for developing new anti-TB regimens. Keywords: Ethiopia; Medicinal plants; Traditional; Treatments; Tuberculosis. © 2022 The Authors.
Which plant is against tuberculosis?
3. Antimycobacterial and hepatoprotective activity of plants – Since ancient time, ethnobotanical knowledge subsists in India and people use herbs as a source of medicines, especially for primary healthcare. The country has about 45,000 plant species and many of them have been studied for their medicinal properties,
- As mentioned above, due to acute toxicity and associated side effects of existing chemical medications there is an increase in inclination towards traditional source of medicines.
- Although the synthetic drugs are effective for the prevention, cure and management of countless diseases, but their use can cause surplus health vulnerabilities,
Plants are rich source of biologically active compounds, proven to be effective antimicrobial agents. Traditionally, many plants are used to treat Mycobacterium infections. Phytochemicals present in plants are reported to inhibits multidrug efflux system of microbes.
- In a study by Sharma et al.
- Piperine was reported to inhibit a putative multidrug efflux pump (Rv1258c) of M.
- Another important phytochemical with anti-bacterial properties is Berberine.
- This compound has potential for the treatment of bacterial infection.
- Berberine can interrupt bacterial colonization or biofilm formation by binding with amyloid proteins.
Berberine also competes with lipopolysaccharides for binding with TLR4/MD-2. This competence can result in an inhibition of inflammation during infection, Saritha et al. also reported mechanisms responsible for antibacterial activity of phytochemicals, which includes disruption of bacterial cell membrane, permeabilization and leakage of cellular contents.
- Thus, comparable to synthetic drug, phytochemicals also interfere with various cellular mechanisms to inhibit the growth of bacteria.
- Coumarin, allicin, andrographolide, glabridin and vasicine acetate are some examples of phytochemicals studied in recent years for their anti-mycobacterial properties,,,,
Plants are also effective against MDR-TB. Plant such as Acalypha indica, Adhatoda vasica, Allium sativum Andrographis paniculata and Cassia sophera had shown significant antimycobacterial activity against MDR-TB in vitro, Traditional plants used for the treatment of TB are also a rich source of phytochemicals, which have several health benefits including on liver.
Phytochemicals are well established hepatoprotective agents which can restore normal function, enzymatic activity and histology of hepatic cells against anti-TB drugs or chemical induced hepatotoxicity. The herbs can lower the elevated levels of serum enzymes, total bilirubin and protein. They can also restore the anomalous activity of enzymatic antioxidants and liver damage caused by anti-TB drugs,,,
For example, Withanolide from the plant Withania somnifera has anti-oxidant properties and reduces hepatocyte necrosis, serum ALT levels, and intrahepatic hemorrhage in vitro, Apium graveolens, A. indica, A. paniculata, Ficus religiosa, Fumaria indica, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Syzygium aromaticum, W.
- Somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia etc.
- Are traditionally used plants for the treatment of TB which also possess hepatoprotective properties.
- These plants are rich source of alkaloids, flavonoids, diterpenoid, tannins, lipids, sterols etc.
- With anti-microbial and hepatic protective effects.
- Several traditionally used anti-TB plants possess anti-microbial activity against MTB-H37RV,,,
Supplementary Table S1 summarizes list of plant traditionally used for the treatment of TB and have antimicrobial, antitubercular and hepatoprotective activity.
What is Mycobacterium tuberculosis best cultivated on?
The only media that allow abundant growth of M. tuberculosis are egg-enriched media with glycerol and asparagine (viz., Lowenstein- Jensen) or agar based media supplemented with bovine albumin (viz., Middlebrook, 7H10 or 7H11).
Are bryophytes source of antibiotics?
Bryophytes chemically synthesize many terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and rare aromatic substances and the antimicrobial activity of bryophytes against fungi and prokaryotic cells has been demonstrated in many studies (10,11,28,29).